In 2010, I was asked to write a book (Nanobrain: The making of an artificial brain from a time crystal). It was just over 5 years we started building the artificial brain in NIMS, Japan. Now that book is published and one could get is from CRC press or amazon I feel truly amazing how this journey started.
I could see that people were asking me disturbing questions which I had no answer. Some questions I could note here:
- What brain do you want to make? Do you have your own brain model or copying an existing brain model from tens of thousands available?
- Would it be a Turing machine? Remember that everything that could be stated or defined, would be emulated using a Turing machine, so powerful is that protocol. And if its a Turing machine, there is no unpredictability. Do you mean hypercomputing, but there is no evidence.
- Would your artificial brain be a classical or a quantum device?
- What is the information theory you follow? Shannon’s information theory, talks about communication channel, maximum limits, the quantity of bits as a measurable entity, what is your quantity of information?
- Would you use a faster transistor or what would be your electronics? Do you think that the brain is a circuit of the neuron as a transistor or a switch? How would the circuit look like in the brain?
- Do you need new mathematics? Which branch of mathematics would you use to build your brain? If not, what kind of mathematics the brain would follow, do you have any idea?
- Would your brain be a jelly-like organic material like our brain or you would use hybrid chips or totally electronic devices to build your brain?
- Would your brain have an analog of the neuron and then you would replicate that in a large number for building the device? We all know neuromorphic devices, would you build a similar kind of devices and then integrate?
- Look, if I make a quantum computer, infinitely powerful, I would make an artificial brain. Why do I need your computer or non-computer?
- Do not waste your life on microtubules, its skeleton of the cell, tell me would you search for intelligence in the skeleton of your body? There is nothing inside the neuron cell membrane, look somewhere else, build a nice career.
I understood that time, I have to dig inside a neuron to find the answer. In the history of science, always you would have to look inside a system to find the origin of its mysterious responses. Being a physicist I did not have any idea what is protein and how to handle it experimentally. I was desperate and wanted to study tubulin, microtubule, actin and several other protein structures. What do they do in the neuron cell? I wanted to know clearly. We measured the vibrations but the resonance peaks were shifting spontaneously, we observed it in 2012, but it took 4 years to find that there is a hidden language in the vibrations of biomaterials. We got the language, its letters are clocks.
The next question was finding the origin, how that information integrates. Then we found simple mathematical tool to bind events happening around us. All we have to do is to bind events, which is possible when events have a geometric shape. The transition of an event shape from a line to a geometric shape paves the way to three things. First, now, mathematical relationships like the ratio of sides or arcs would bring integers and primes, so the geometric constraints and primes would govern. We get a metric that would link all possible geometries or all possible events. In the composition of integers primes, the particular geometric shapes would self-assemble and build new structures as the numbers increase n = n + 1. It means increasing integers or participating events would modify geometric structure, we could suggest what would happen in the distant future.
The second advantage would be preparing materials that have resonance peaks similar to the number of corners and they shift in a group. When the materials would self-assemble then, the supramolecular architecture would grow as if someone is doing simulation about the future of events. The solution of a problem would be a supramolecule that would generate future course of events and as possible past.
The third advantage is developing a metric for the fundamental physics that might involve in the decision making process. In other words we enter into the creation of a new geometric algebra where you do not write giant equations but take a pencil and paper and try to draw complex mathematics that we could not even imagine.
Therefore, one of the finest transition point in our research was the decision to convert every single event in terms of geometric shapes. What we did additionally was to put the geometric shapes inside a clock so that we could build complex time crystals. So, event has a topology and an executioner. The blending of the event with geometry brings, time crystal since time crystal has a long history sincs the 1970s to build self-operational system for viruses, it was a great adventure for us to generalize it and build complex architectures of time crystal which was missing in the earlier studies. This is the core journey and many other concepts were inevitable outcomes.
Now I have got answers to all the queries now, and those are compiled in the book nanobrain : an artificial brain made of a time crystal . Lets take a brief of the discussions.
- What brain do you want to make? Do you have your own brain model or copying an existing brain model from tens of thousands available? We make a new artificial brain model for ourselves. Every single component in the brain is an architecture of clock and using only clocks in different arrangements we could build the entire brain. This is a time crystal model of the human brain with a difference that there is no component we leave outside the model, if someone says do your brain have ionic clocks, we say yes, if someone says, do your brain have a solitonic clock we say yes, if someone says do you have vortex of fields as clock we say yes, to cover wide time ranges we include clocks without any selection. Even we give an open invitation, come and be a part of it.
- Would it be a Turing machine? Remember that everything that could be stated or defined, would be emulated using a Turing machine, so powerful is that protocol. And if its a Turing machine, there is no unpredictability. Do you mean hypercomputing, but there is no evidence. We reject Turing machine, but rejecting it is not easy. If you can state something like a fact then its Turing machine. If you consider imaginary values even then no way to move out, it would be Turing. We were looking for a system that would be undefined always. For years I was so confused. Does there exist any system that is undefined yet that operates. This is like glass made of ion, oxymoron. But we found an idea in the geometric approximation. Say, you build an architecture B inside A, C inside B…. and so on and on, now beyond a threshold number of layers, if you go, you would find the hardware is able to make infinite projection of the topologies hidden inside and bring a result that in no way could be defined in any of the layers. Imagine layers give 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +……= -1/12, now, this -1/12 if taken to 1 or 2 or 3 you find nothing. This is why we discovered Fractal tape, a fractal tape based machine. We needed a conformal geometric information transfer all along the tape architecture and our journey started.
- Would your artificial brain be a classical or a quantum device? This is another disturbing question, I know people are fighting about it, but I feel both are asking the wrong question, do you know what is information in the brain, how does it integrate by itself, what is the elementary device and what is the mechanics it follows to integrate the information in the first place. When we decide that there is no real point in the information structure of the universe, it is entirely made of singularity, then, there is no way one could use classical or quantum mechanics. First of all, if you imagine a classical system, how do you make a Lagrangian or dynamic state for the system, when it is incomplete, running by acquiring feedback from infinity? For the same reason you cannot define a Hamiltonian, projection to infinity tells that a wave function would have a fractal-like structure, so, who would make Schrodinger equation over there? Thus, it could follow a dynamics specific to a prime based fractal system. When we include prime features we may classify it as fractal mechanics.
- What is the information theory you follow? Shannon’s information theory, talks about communication channel, maximum limits, the quantity of bits as a measurable entity, what is your quantity of information? Once we have the idea that resonance peaks of microtubule or protein contain the peaks inside and those peaks are made of many resonance peaks, we understood, that the unit of information in the brain has one Bloch sphere like quantum and it has singularity points which bursts energy, and that singularity point has another Bloch sphere and this network is endless. Since all spheres are unitary tensors, we have eventally only one bit for the whole human brain and then you go inside and inside. Asking for bits is nonsense and more interesting is that the conversation of communication channel is laughable here because you do not need wiring, we do not transmit information here, only keys or seeds of 15 types which are then amplified and expanded by the receiver. The time crystal encompasses all the elements in the hardware as the singular time crystal architecture, where no separate communication would be required. Of course you could estimate number of symmetries or number of symmetry breaking or number of primes allocated by the system to estimate the versatility of dynamics, but nothing more than that.
- Would you use a faster transistor or what would be your electronics? Do you think that the brain is a circuit of the neuron as a transistor or a switch? How would the circuit look like in the brain? We started working on fourth circuit element. Now, in 2008, I came across a paper of HP for investing the missing fourth circuit element. I immediately new it was a fake invention. The claimed device in nature could not generate magnetic flux and it was a simple resistor or memristor. A memristor proposed by chua could never be the fourth circuit element. Here in this book we described the 10 years long journey for the fourth circuit element, Hinductor, we gave a new name. We proposed a paradox for the fourth circuit element, if your device flows current and generates a magnetic flux, it is an inductor and if your device is not moving the charge and still producing magnetic flux it is violating the maxwells law. Therefore, we need to find a solution, we did and found that we could create magnetic vortex so would be the DNA and microtubule and the proteins. Therefore, we went on creating the organic analogue and discovered anomalous quantum cloaking. Our Hinductor H series devices could self-assemble and build H3, third generation 2D sheets which could be used in the artificial brain. In fact we used that in our humanoid bot.
- Do you need new mathematics? Which branch of mathematics would you use to build your brain? If not, what kind of mathematics the brain would follow, do you have any idea? Algebra that we know replaces arithmetic by generic variable, for example, a number is replaced by an unknown variable and relations of different numbers are then carried out using relationships of these variables like x + y = 2. Now, think about another world of mathematics where instead of variables of numbers you have geometric shapes and using them you explore various kinds of spatial, temporal, topological and prime dynamics. Just like in algebra you replaced integers with numbers, here we replace integers with the geometric shapes and geometric shapes link by their topological constraints and the pattern of primes. Therefore, we cannot call it an algebra, but we need to assign a new name. Here the beauty is combining a triangle with a 20 face icosanion and generate a square
- Would your brain be a jelly-like organic material like our brain or you would use hybrid chips or totally electronic devices to build your brain? An organic jelly that links clocks made of organic materials and builds supramolecular architectures. We have created the model of the human brain in terms of complex clock architectures and an organiz jelly based hybrid humanoid bot to follow that.
- Would your brain have an analog of the neuron and then you would replicate that in a large number for building the device? We all know neuromorphic devices, would you build a similar kind of devices and then integrate? No sir, we need everything-morphic, just neuromorphic wont work. It is difficult to believe that human intelligence is embedded in the skin of the neuron cells alone. It is also very difficult to believe that alone the neuron skin would do everything. We could say that “do you think your skin is doing everything for you though logically I cannot prove it wrong”. This is a tremendous fallacy that logically no one could disprove that skin of a human does everything, but there are other parts. What if the ordered filamentary structures are the complicated decision-maker. No, we do not want to do that, A or B or C or…..D could be that the geometry of all of them work together, in a hierarchical manner. Then no single component is alone responsible but a few set of symmetries repeated many times in the hardware to integrate topologies to build a brain. This is a different assembly for the components within and above, not linear or nonlinear responses. Its not functional assembly.
- Look, if I make a quantum computer, infinitely powerful, I would make an artificial brain. Why do I need your computer or non-computer? Enlightened people do not need our artificial brain, but the confused need it. Those who already know the solution of a problem, understand the mechanism fully, they could assign a software engineer and ask them to write an algorithm to process information. However, for us, the solution to a problem is not data like 5m/s or “yes/no”. It is an architecture of confusion. Say, you find a confusion, find a few confusion inside, dig deeper and find more confusion, eventually, you would get an architecture of confusions where many interconnected branches of confusions end in the facts. When we cannot state anything then we move for the development of an architecture of confusion while the common computer needs lots of facts and instructions to link them. This is an entirely new culture. While classical and quantum computers to be categorized in one type of fact-link based decision making where one builds a large number of choices, we are proposing a new kind of decision making where the topology of confusion is analysed and a geometric progression series is created to predict the future. The second problem is that since we use infinite series like geometric shape progression, and then accept the reflection back from infinity, geometric reflection is not a mirror image at one dimension but 11D, geometric shapes undergo superposition, clock-anti-clcok rotation, self-similar feature detection like several steps which returns from infinity and acts on the elements of the geometric series. One cannot build a function, map within a map within a map has effect from emergent projection from infinity. This is not achieved by an algorithm. We need a non-computer.
- “Do not waste your life on microtubules, its skeleton of the cell, tell me would you search for intelligence in the skeleton of your body? There is nothing inside the neuron cell membrane, look somewhere else, build a nice career“. This was not the end. There was something else. The person, one of the most respected biologists in the world told me that “I would be happy if you are proved wrong, but it seems unlikely that you would be wrong”. I understood, by measuring the microtubule bundles inside a neuron, I am on the right track. I never took my eyes off the resonance peaks and went on measuring the peaks, which peaks shift, just like the Indian classical music, the ratio of frequencies determine a raga, the notes change, yet, one could identify which raga is being played. Slowly it was clear, that it is a different kind of language hidden there. We discovered GML the geometric musical language from microtubule and neuron and different proteins. We understood the mechanism in terms of patterns of primes and then new kind of mathematics, built artificial brain jelly and that was the journey for microtubule inspired computing. Therefore, sometimes ignoring advises turn your life the other way round.