Turing machine

All posts tagged Turing machine

Ten inventions that we contributed from NIMS, Japan and would consolidate in the next 10 years (2016-2026)

Published September 11, 2016 by anirbanbandyo
  1. Information Theory:          A new information theory. FIT or Fractal Information Theory. This is a new way of computing or decision-making by fractal logic gate, or fractal cavity resonator. For this purpose we proposed Fractal tape like Turing tape and Fractom machine. We often use nested cycle metric to generate fundamental geometric constants.
  2. Mechanics:           We have been developing a new generic version of quantum mechanics, FM or Fractal Mechanics, We conceptualized a new fractal harmonic oscillator alternative to QFT
  3. Language:         We have been developing a new geometric musical language (GML) and constructed Continued Fraction Geometric Alzebra (CFGA) and Geometric musical calculator (GMC).
  4. Human brain model:          We develop fractal cavity resonator model of the human brain, (FCR-Brain) and Frequency Wheel of prime model (FWPM) for any biological machine. We develop cavity math for protein design for life forms. Nested Rhythm map of the Human brain (NRM-Brain). We discovered ferroelectric, piezoelectric & pyroelectric properties of microtubule and every protein, we have also discovered that protein has electromagnetic resonance, Universal protein circuit model (UPCM).
  5. Geometric number system theory:             We construct and information version for developing the theory of everything, and a theory of consciousness we call it Time cycle universe theory (TCU), this is not like GUT, ours is a set of integrated mathematical constructs and protocols that would help in the understanding the universe and or consciousness. For example relating e, pi, phi with all fundamental constants, frequency wheel of primes, ordered factor etc.
  6. Fourth circuit element:            We invent fourth circuit element, Hinductor
  7. Thermal energy harvesting machines:           We invent artificial life forms, kT driven thermal nanobots, Thermo Electro mechanical system (TEMS).
  8. Musiceutical nanobots:            We have developed musiceuticals, vibration based medicines, Nano Brain. Main focused diseases have been cancer and alzheimers.
  9. Fractal chemical kinetics and condensation:          We have developed a new kind of multi-kinetic synthesis, we invent a new class of condensation beyond Froelich condensation, Fractal condensation
  10. Brain jelly:             We invented organic jelly that replicates biological rhythm like information processing, Brain jelly. We invent world’s smallest neural network. Multilevel switch. Fractal beating like quantum beating for nested beating to be used to create fractal cavity resonator for brain jelly.

research-protocol-in-our-lab

Incredible properties of AjoChhand computing: Why it would outperform all classical & quantum Turing computing

Published July 30, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

We have given a name to our geometric musical language based computing, AjoChhand computing. It uses Fractal tape instead of a Turing tape and uses Fractal Information Theory (FIT) instead of Quantum Information Theory (QIT). Why name is AjoChhand? Ajo word comes from Ajeya or Invincible, and Chhandam means Rhythm, so its an invincible rhythm computing.

Here are some of the incredible features of this class of computing.

(i) Search a massive database without searching (spontaneous reply).

(ii) Multiple nested clocks one inside another enable “a virtual instant decision making”

(iii) No programming is required as “cycles self-assemble/dis-assembly for better sync at all possible time scales simultaneously”.

(iv) “Phase space” keeps “volume intact” as required resources only increases phase density not a real space. Information = wiring geometry (hardware); Information = silence (not “bing” Philosophy); Information = Phase (geometric); Information = Perimeter or diameter (parametric).

(v) Perpetual spontaneous editing of slower time cycles (creation/destruction/defragmentation) “prepare for unknown” = higher-level learning.

(vi) We introduce “fractal resolution”, a complex signal’s lowest and fastest time scale signals are absorbed. simultaneously, & during expansion, the fractal seed delivers full output, from a seed of information (drastic shrinking of data).

(vii) The superposition of simultaneously operating million paths assembles into a sphere enables “extreme parallelism”. In quantum, only one Bloch sphere, here sphere inside a sphere inside a sphere…

(viii) Time cycle is memory, rotation along the cycle is processing, are same events, “no transport needed between memory and processing units”, no wiring, no communication, no communication channel.

(ix) No logic gate, no reduction of choices, which ensures that “speed” is irrelevant. No bits or Qubits. Object is not measured by an observer, object to be observed is not a separate thing, i.e. No measurement. Observer, Object and Environment integrates in the time cycle, (time cycle = unit of information = an event). A question is assimilated into the internal network of time cycles it affects the environment & observer in course of assimilation. That is how solution is derived, no computing is done to find an answer.

(x) All sensory information is converted to one geometric language that allows “perception”, a yellow color could have a taste. Perception is not a programming as wrongly perceived.

(xi) It never requires rebooting, only one computing runs for whole life, but of course it sleeps when it switches off certain interactive links with nature, yet even at that time all three internal rhythm networks run. Rebooting means temporary switching of the internal rhythm integrator. This is an equivalence of consciousness. The machine follows all ten criteria of a conscious machine set by us (see my consciousness post).

(xii) It always defragments internal structure, but self- editing is not so profound at the boundary clocks, there is a gaussian distribution of editing efficiency, clocks in the middle edits the maximum. There are various reasons why this is so essential. (i) Boundaries cannot be so vulnerable to changes, (ii) editing requires a high density of clock boundaries, (iii) Job description leaves only clocks in the middle to memorize environments, while faster clocks need to memorize hardware management, the slower clocks require to sync with the environment.

Tell us if Brain is not a computer and not a Turing machine, then what?

Published May 27, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

“These words information, data, rules, software, knowledge, lexicons, representations, algorithms, programs, models, memories, images, processors, subroutines, encoders, decoders, symbols, or buffers do not exist in the brain.” Such statements flood the internet, but no one tells us, what are the words true for the brain.

Microtubule is the gateway to the understanding of the brain, thanks to its water channel inside. It is not the only component, but, just like DNA holds the key to genetics and evolution, microtubule holds the key to thermodynamics and acquired information by a living system. However, microtubule has never received the honor it should get, in spite of its magical contributions, throughout the entire living species in the planet. However, I feel that there is a bigger problem with our overall approach to biology. Our perception regarding the information is holding us back and if we do not know what is information in Nature, we know nothing. We always get an answer to a query, but, the form of the question determines the nature of answer.

I think there is always an attempt to see proteins and any biosystems like a transistor or a switch, as if from proteins to brain everything is a circuit made of elementary electronic devices. We blindly force the biological systems as if they are electronic devices found in the conventional electronic shops. Design experiments accordingly, and undoubtedly get the results satisfying our faith. This is not only a very wrong idea for the common people; you would find such an erroneous understanding even in the scientists. A Google search would get you several papers in Nature and Science suggesting that the protein is a transistor and a switch and like OP-AMP. I agree that this is an easy route to publish papers, but so many varieties of biological systems are there and without investigating what those devices want to be, we carry out simple experiments to tag them as handful of known devices used in electronic chips, it has become a religious faith now. In addition, if some scientists want to seem radical, they tag it as a quantum system, one mystery to support another mystery. Therefore the mindset masks the true quest, “bits” has not impacted “in a bit” but in a massive way to the free thinkers.

You would also see that there are two groups of peoples, one that believes that our brain is a computer, or brain is a Turing machine. In addition, there is another group, which suggests that brain is not a Turing machine, but do not tell us what is that unknown device actually the brain is or the biological system represents. Opposition to mainstream should be done sensibly. Toppling the world of “logic” that started with Bertrand Russel’s “principles of mathematics” in 1903, is not so easy or fun. Criticizing the mainstream science is good but not without an alternative in our hand that is concrete. Those who challenge the mainstream science (brain is a computer, neuron is a switch, all information processing happens through the skin of neuron body or membrane, but everything inside neuron is just a blank, neural network is a circuit etc), they are mostly not serious. If the brain is not Turing machine, then tell us what is that elementary machine? Well, in the last 100 years of development of logic, no one talked about making decisions without “logic”. Note that everyone tried to topple the logical world, but failed. Why? The inverse of “logic” is “illogical” which means “nonsense” to us for the current science. Making sense in an illogical way is the way to go. But the question is how?

Microtubule showed the way to us. With a decade long research on brain and biomaterials, we never tried to forcefully tag biomaterials and biosystems as electronic shop equipments. We felt that instead of screaming “everything is wrong”, we should carefully observe the biosystem and find what kind of systems do they make. Our papers are technical, but here is a summary of what we found.

We found that the biological systems while building living machines, does not make a switch or circuit, it wants to make a clock inside a clock inside a clock…. in a nested structure. The wiring we observe in the brain and at several biological structure is an illusion, every single biological machine is a frequency wheel, just like a clock the wheel is played as a music. Every biological system is a musical device of a very new kind. Unlike Tuning forks, they have several fundamental resonance frequencies, and they select those frequencies to play music, and those musical notes are such that they represents geometric shapes and information, so it is not harmonic, but an anharmonic device. This discovery is not “simple” as it appears. Just imagine, music representing banana and apple are being played in a device as two simple pieces of music in a loop, then if one activates an apple by synchrony or resonance, the other is played. Thus, there is no reduction of decisions like we see in the logic gates and hence “time cycle” to replace “bits” and “qubits”. There is no collapse. This is what we learnt from microtubule and applied on the entire human brain.

Thus, we reject “bits”, or “qubits”, we say that our experiment suggests, that we should not be debating whether brain is a quantum or classical or chaotic, those concerns are irrelevant, debates are unnecessary. There is something much more interesting and profound, that is the true nature of information. “Time cycles” as suggested above gets nested, we have verified this in neuron cells, at least 7 proteins.

Our discovery of nested clocks led to “Fractal tape” to replace the “Turing tape”. A very simple decision, “every single cell of a Turing tape has a Turing tape inside”, this statement alone collapses the foundation of a century old concept of Turing machine. We have repeated our experiments of resonance frequency measurement with the state of the art technology for various proteins and their complexes. For example we have studied “tubulin”, actin, beta spectrin, ancyrin, clathrin, collagen to understand the role of electromagnetic resonance frequencies. We found that they have a composition of resonance frequency bands. Mostly we found triplet of triplet bands that connects all.

Brain is a clock inside a clock inside a clock… there is no end to it. This particular finding changes the basic understanding about our brain. The old believes that neuron skin or membrane does everything falls apart. Neuron skin is just one of 300 different types of cavities that we have in the brain. Microtubule is also one of those 300 types. Therefore, cavity inside a cavity inside a cavity makes a resonance chain which is best arranged in the form of a frequency wheel is the machine that creates rhythms to operate.

In summary, we have not restricted ourselves to the microtubule alone, or single protein studies, or even to a few live neuron cells. We have built a series of technologies like atom probe noise free electrode system to see what is happening to the single cell when we see them simultaneously using various clocks. With 26000 proteins and more than a few hundreds of different types of cavities we have engaged into building a comprehensive model that disregards the existing massive brain building projects.

We cannot understand the dynamics of a river by mapping the wave shapes of ripples on its surface. One cavity, the neuron skin can take 100 billion new forms in 8 billion humans, mapping all neuron geometries would not tell what is our brain. However, we realized only way to go forward to let one cavity say neuron geometry to come under the influence of trillions of cavities below and millions of cavities above, and evolve geometry in 10^11 ways, then, information of music will let the neuron to dance, and that would be the way to understand the information processing in the brain.

We understand that developing geometric musical language, fractal cavity resonator model of the brain, doing experiment with neurons, proteins, complexes, and neuron clusters are not simple and easy task, but if we model it properly, we will be able to give the world of science a new way to look into the basic understanding of information. Only then perhaps people would understand, that our basic definition of information re-defines everything. Transition from “bit” to “time cycle” and providing every single cell of a Turing tape to hold a tape inside could transform everything we know about the operations of a biological system. 

 

 

 

 

Going beyond Turing machine: World of technologies with “Infinite state” machines

Published December 30, 2014 by anirbanbandyo

Turing’s world of computing considers every single element is complete in itself, just like that a “matter” is complete; nothing inside/outside is changing it. Completeness enables discrete and binary true/false argument to define it. We get a Turing world.

Recently, we proposed an Escape Time (ET) fractal tape, where, as we enter inside a cell of the tape, we find another tape, hence not a single cell in the entire tape network is defined (non-differentiable). This is not a Turing tape. This AjoChhand vision has one argument, one energy packet, one Turing like tape, one clock, one rhythm, one oscillator that encompasses the entire universe, but if we enter inside any of them, we find millions of those inside, the journey continue forever, whether we zoom in/out.

Unlike Turing, any “matter” is conceptually incomplete so we need matter+energy duality to connect all matters inside and outside. Conserved energy takes the form of periodic oscillation or rhythm and maintains time, but each rhythm has rhythms inside/outside. We cannot isolate any small piece of argument from tape network, hence, no bits or arguments like true/false, that leads to no classical information content. Observer/user is also part of the tape network. User’s sensory resolution limits isolate a part of limitless rhythm network that is “his” information-perception. Since “that” is not a discrete unit, it remains undefined, so entire rhythm net, is represented as matrix of truth with infinite dimensions, no rhythm is ever destroyed, no choice is ever rejected. This is an ET system, but self-similarity is not mandatory, so it is not a true fractal, possibly fractal-like.

Unlike Turing, our tape (AjoChhand tape) needs four new steps, resonate (with a rhythm), expand (self-assembly of rhythms), Phase transition (of rhythms), and spontaneous reply (the rhythms). Self-similarity of shape/rhythm appears/disappears with time, as rhythms couple/decouple with other rhythms, changes the structural symmetry of matters to memorize particular set of frequencies for a rhythm. The entire tape network is never-ending resonance chain of coupled matters that vibrate with rhythm, means, local rhythms vibrate as a distinct entity in parts of the tape.

Since observer/user is also part of the rhythms of the tape-network, it senses by perpetual local synchrony and de-synchrony with various parts of the tape, thus, its “sensing” not computation by classical theory of computation.