Brain

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What is memory in the brain? How many different kinds of memories in the brain?

Published September 22, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Vibrations holds the key, for everything. Until now, we were considering that the vibrations and rhythms are only key to some enzyme cycles. But our proposal is that deep down below even to the molecular scale there are rhythms. And there are 12 types of memories that works at the 12 scales of operations in the brain.

All memories are geometric in nature

1. Periodic memory: Chain of guiter string we see mostly in DNA, proteins, period of periods in the nodes of the string. Edit the memory by changing the periodic length of elementary point oscillators.
2. Spiral of spiral memory, in DNA and proteins, also in microtubules. Edit the memory by changing the twists and the number of hierarchical periods by inducing more and more twists.
3. Vector memory, orientation of helices to make cavities inside protein. 3D orientation makes it a multipolar complex 3D vibrational element. Edit the memory by changing the orientation of column oscillators.
4. Lattice memory, microtubule, actin-beta spectrin network, protein complex. Change the lattice parameters to edit the memory.
5. Chemico-electric memory, chemical transmission cycles. There are nested time cycles highly interconnected, to edit the memory, change the diameter, phase, delay or starting points.
6. Leak density of Cavity memory, ion diffusion holes in the cellular membrane. To edit the memory change the leak density on the cavity surface.
7. Spiral geometric memory, assembly of neurons etc. To edit the memory, change the pitch-diameter-length of the spiral.
8. Vortex or fractal memory, memory stored in the geometric parameters of vortex. A vortex has divergence parameters and scale repeat unit, these two parameters are changed to edit memory.
9.Nodal & polar memory: Nodes in the spinal cord brain network (nodes in a tear drop). Geometry of the shapes are changed among 8 different choices from teardrop to ellipsoid to edit nodes and polarity memory.
10. Electromechanical phase memory: organs sync and desync like a giant molecule. This memory is edited by changing the bond length or wiring length and distribution.
11. Multipolar loop in Phase space loop memory: Hyperspace memory. This memory is non-physical and hence not editable.
12. Phase of phase duality generator memory: hierarchical assembly of reality sphere. This memory is non-physical and hence not editable.

How many different kinds of rhythms are there in our brain?

Published September 22, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Sound is a mechanical rhythm and we have 12 different rhythms in the brain, like

1. Electromagnetic rhythm, [carrier is photon or electromagnetic wave is trapped in a cavity to generate beating or rhythm].
2. Magnetic rhythm, [spiral flow of electrons or ions, they are the carriers editing the magnetic flux, geometry of path forms the periodicity].
3. Electrical potential rhythm, [change in the arrangement of dipoles editing the electric field, fractal distribution of local resonators generate a time function of potential]
4. Solitonic & quasi particle rhythm, [carriers are solitons, defect in the order flows in a ordered structure, the ordered structure is edited to make a loop].
5. Ionic diffusion rhythm, [ions are carriers, tube like cavities are formed in a circular shape or continuous path to generate a loop]
6. Molecular chemical rhythm, [molecules like proteins, enzymes etc are carriers, tube like cavities are formed and sensory systems make sure a circular signalling pathway]
7. Quantum beating, [spin is the carrier, wavefunctions interfere in a squeezed excited photonic, electromagnetic or spin state]
8. Density of states rhythm, [orbitals coupling, wave function modulation, virtual carrier, a virtual continuous loop is made]
9. van-der Waal rhythm, [atomic thermal vibration is looped in a spiral pathway].
10. electro-mechanical rhythm [classical beating with a mechanical beating like tuning fork]
11. Quasi-charge rhythm polaron, polariton [topological fractured band based continuous loops]
12. mechanical rhythm, sound wave [similarly elastic pathways to make a circuit of sound waves].

Just imagine, such beautiful patterns are one of 12 different formations. Their physics is different, application domain and range are different.

Ten inventions that we contributed from NIMS, Japan and would consolidate in the next 10 years (2016-2026)

Published September 11, 2016 by anirbanbandyo
  1. Information Theory:          A new information theory. FIT or Fractal Information Theory. This is a new way of computing or decision-making by fractal logic gate, or fractal cavity resonator. For this purpose we proposed Fractal tape like Turing tape and Fractom machine. We often use nested cycle metric to generate fundamental geometric constants.
  2. Mechanics:           We have been developing a new generic version of quantum mechanics, FM or Fractal Mechanics, We conceptualized a new fractal harmonic oscillator alternative to QFT
  3. Language:         We have been developing a new geometric musical language (GML) and constructed Continued Fraction Geometric Alzebra (CFGA) and Geometric musical calculator (GMC).
  4. Human brain model:          We develop fractal cavity resonator model of the human brain, (FCR-Brain) and Frequency Wheel of prime model (FWPM) for any biological machine. We develop cavity math for protein design for life forms. Nested Rhythm map of the Human brain (NRM-Brain). We discovered ferroelectric, piezoelectric & pyroelectric properties of microtubule and every protein, we have also discovered that protein has electromagnetic resonance, Universal protein circuit model (UPCM).
  5. Geometric number system theory:             We construct and information version for developing the theory of everything, and a theory of consciousness we call it Time cycle universe theory (TCU), this is not like GUT, ours is a set of integrated mathematical constructs and protocols that would help in the understanding the universe and or consciousness. For example relating e, pi, phi with all fundamental constants, frequency wheel of primes, ordered factor etc.
  6. Fourth circuit element:            We invent fourth circuit element, Hinductor
  7. Thermal energy harvesting machines:           We invent artificial life forms, kT driven thermal nanobots, Thermo Electro mechanical system (TEMS).
  8. Musiceutical nanobots:            We have developed musiceuticals, vibration based medicines, Nano Brain. Main focused diseases have been cancer and alzheimers.
  9. Fractal chemical kinetics and condensation:          We have developed a new kind of multi-kinetic synthesis, we invent a new class of condensation beyond Froelich condensation, Fractal condensation
  10. Brain jelly:             We invented organic jelly that replicates biological rhythm like information processing, Brain jelly. We invent world’s smallest neural network. Multilevel switch. Fractal beating like quantum beating for nested beating to be used to create fractal cavity resonator for brain jelly.

research-protocol-in-our-lab

Why information processing through membrane is the most nonsense idea created by mankind?

Published July 22, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Membrane of a neuron processes information in the brain is an idea that came into existence in the year 1905. More than hundred years have passed, still we are harping on the same string. This is a totally nonsense idea and why it survived for over 100 years I simply cannot imagine.

  1. Skin is the brain, preserve the holy skin: Neuron is a living life form, just like us, but extremely primitive. Saying that its skin or membrane processes its information is like saying, human skin processes information and everything else in the body are just nothing. Take a microscope and see, how fast evolving our skin is, largest organ in the body and within 11-14 days the entire skin gets replaced. I can start Hanuman Challisa for the skin, just like scientists do for the neuron. But the advocates of “skin is our brain” has got a new idea nowadays, “guts is our brain and microbiomes are the real neurons”.
  2. Hang your precious items on the external wall of your house: Do you keep your precious items inside a well secure place in your home or in the wall outside? Therefore thinking that synapse processes information is like keeping most important things in the garden outside your house. You know glial cells and astrocytes, they are not just thieves but dacoits.
  3. Wall that separates the boundary between two houses hold the secret of life of the two houses: How come a person with a common sense comes up with an idea that keep the secrets of the brain in the junction of two living life form, neurons? I have always wondered about one thing, since the day I learnt information processing as a young kid, why two giant people lie down their foots connected, and that connection point is important. When a single molecule can store a bit, why two giant life forms essential? Why making both of them redundant? Why cannot a single person with a single idea think that by considering the junction as the information storage place, you are destroying both of them?
  4. If you have 1 million people around, you do not use microphone, but go and ask everybody, hello, have you seen my pajama? Nerve impulse is the mode of communication means to search something in the brain you contact every single neuron. If you say there is a specific way, then you need another brain which decides where to go, so do not try that trick. This is so bogus, just imagine, someone asks you where do you live? Then you need so many things to process, it is not a computer like storage system, questions match so reply back which is connected by the same circuit. Nerve impulses would have to scan your whole brain several times for each part of a given question.
  5. I give you 130 ways to reply, but your answer will be “yes” or “no”, OK? When one neurotransmitter could do the job, what 130 neurotransmitters are doing over there? When you need 0 and 1, why are you giving 130 ways to reply? Bullying? I give you many many ways to reply, but you have to say just one thing, OK?
  6. I will tell you entire Ramayana and Mahabharata but you mix every single letter in my story and remember just one letter, OK? Why do you need specific synaptic branches when you are supposed to mix all signals in Soma? You are destroying everything of the entire story coming from the environment, and generating one nerve impulse in the skin. Why? Have a big conical shape mouth to capture all ions like fishermen uses net.
  7. See, whatever you have in your house, they exist only to support the external wall, that is the key. Even the beams and electric lines are only to support the external wall. The height of nonsense begins when people argue, look micro and neurofilaments are just like skeletons in a body. They just hold the skin. They forget what they actually mean. “Skeleton does not do information processing but the skin does“. Well, micro and neurofilaments & several complexes are at least transporting like neural pathway and blood vessels, but, ignore them for promoting the greatness of skin?
  8. Look, brain is a circuit like a computer and there are neural wiring. Just like metal wires have skin effect, membrane mimics just that, its skin and a device sold in normal electronics shop. The human race picks up tools that they imagined to follow the well defined instructions and then tag a million year evolved system with that. If we look at the breakthroughs in Science and Nature journal we will get abundant papers trying to correlate biological responses with electronic goods available in shops. Sometimes, protein is a transistor, switch, membrane is a switch, an OP-AMP, cascade relay circuit, anything and everything we can think of, skin is like Narayan Avatar of Hindus, one system but acts like many very distinctly engineered device.
  9. Think about an animal talking to another, there are various modes of his action; visual, non-visual etc, any dynamics you see for neurons, assign it to its skin. Skin does frequency modulation, edit rate. In the history of neuroscience, you will see whenever there is any invention of a remarkable property, advocates add a new function and fit that observation. This is a brilliant adventure where even the subthreshold resonance is attributed to the membrane. Self-contradiction is at various steps.
  10. Skin decides where to grow, how to grow, the growing organ by itself decides where to grow: Nonsense crosses all limits when we make membrane equivalent to a living system: Neuron continuously re-wires. No one says this explicitly, but if we closely observe the literatures, then we can find that neuron by itself decides which new connections to make and which wiring needs to get disconnected. This is the reason, when, even that is attributed to the membrane, we have no other choice but to consider that neuron membrane paired layers of dead molecules are alive. Of course this is a great junk science that even a molecular monolayer is a living creature.

 

Does fractal cavity resonator model conflict with circuit model of human brain?

Published June 12, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

António Egas Moniz  theorized that mental illness was caused by nerve cells that couldn’t communicate properly and caused people to in pathological symptoms like mood disorder, sudden switching, panic and several other depression. He developed the lobotomy to try cut off the nerve fibers that he presumed facilitated the mental disorders. After experimenting on 19 patients, he reported that they did indeed improve, though they seemed to also lose crucial elements of their personality and creativity. It was a painful and a bad experiment, however, it does tell us that brain circuits do play a vital role in generating the conscious behavior.

When we develope our fractal cavity resonator model of the human brain, does it have any contradiction with the circuit model? Does it discard the cavity model? Here are some of the arguments which would establish that transmission of local density of states that we need in the molecular scale for the phase based information processing, we need the same at the centimeters scale. Then how would it be possible to transmit signal from one part of the brain to another, we need wiring. Therefore the same cavity resonator model which uses membrane based cavity made of proteins and ionic wave to generate the superposition of waves and interference of waves to create a pattern of vibrations, the save cavity principles work in the largest scale. We can never expect that at all scales we will be able to generate similar forms of vibrations and cavity effects with similar principles.

This is the reason our suggestion of building a frequency fractal to represent a biological system is an essential part of the cavity resonator model. The massive neural wiring of the connectome project is the key to the geometric phase and dynamic phase manipulation at the large scale in the same way it happens for a molecule. Therefore, from the molecular scale to the largest brain scale there is not much fundamental changes in the principle of operation. We should be careful about the consistency of the parameters.

What is the resonance chain and what is frequency wheel then? How tiny pieces of resonance chain creates a frequency wheel? Every single element in the brain is a cavity resonator and has a electromagnetic resonance band, and when several materials come together their resonance bands overlap to form a chain. Since, the number of cavities in a cavity is finite, hence, the chain is finite in length and as the guest cavities process only the geometric information, total phase lag is always 2Pi, hence there is a time cycle. So, we convert a resonance chain into a wheel layer. Many many layers one above another make a frequency wheel that is the representative of a system. Then what is the brain hardware? A fusion of escape time fractal and iterative function system type fractals.

Every single element in the brain is a fractal cavity resonator that leaks. Why does it need to leak? For birefringence, the brain sends pairs of coherent signals in the inner cavities for the quantum beating. All over the brain quantum beating is the key, and this is also true for the connectome map.

How Quantum interference is possible at the large scale? Why does the states do not burn?  Fractal structure enables coherent sources to pass through topmost part of the structure to the smallest cavity, i.e. to the atomic scale. Moreover, the cavities run dynamic phase cycles to run the geometric phase cycles in a time loop. Hence, energy transmission is fractal like. For this very reason, there is neither coherence nor decoherence, it is fracto-herence that creates a virtual reaction point. For example, protein’s in the microtubule would exhibit de-coherence, but the interference occurs in the water channel, whereas the coherent sources are generated by the protein layer.

Is the brain a Quantum computer then? No. We have proposed a new class of computing, fractal tape based computing that would enable the system to process information and making decision in a very different way.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tell us if Brain is not a computer and not a Turing machine, then what?

Published May 27, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

“These words information, data, rules, software, knowledge, lexicons, representations, algorithms, programs, models, memories, images, processors, subroutines, encoders, decoders, symbols, or buffers do not exist in the brain.” Such statements flood the internet, but no one tells us, what are the words true for the brain.

Microtubule is the gateway to the understanding of the brain, thanks to its water channel inside. It is not the only component, but, just like DNA holds the key to genetics and evolution, microtubule holds the key to thermodynamics and acquired information by a living system. However, microtubule has never received the honor it should get, in spite of its magical contributions, throughout the entire living species in the planet. However, I feel that there is a bigger problem with our overall approach to biology. Our perception regarding the information is holding us back and if we do not know what is information in Nature, we know nothing. We always get an answer to a query, but, the form of the question determines the nature of answer.

I think there is always an attempt to see proteins and any biosystems like a transistor or a switch, as if from proteins to brain everything is a circuit made of elementary electronic devices. We blindly force the biological systems as if they are electronic devices found in the conventional electronic shops. Design experiments accordingly, and undoubtedly get the results satisfying our faith. This is not only a very wrong idea for the common people; you would find such an erroneous understanding even in the scientists. A Google search would get you several papers in Nature and Science suggesting that the protein is a transistor and a switch and like OP-AMP. I agree that this is an easy route to publish papers, but so many varieties of biological systems are there and without investigating what those devices want to be, we carry out simple experiments to tag them as handful of known devices used in electronic chips, it has become a religious faith now. In addition, if some scientists want to seem radical, they tag it as a quantum system, one mystery to support another mystery. Therefore the mindset masks the true quest, “bits” has not impacted “in a bit” but in a massive way to the free thinkers.

You would also see that there are two groups of peoples, one that believes that our brain is a computer, or brain is a Turing machine. In addition, there is another group, which suggests that brain is not a Turing machine, but do not tell us what is that unknown device actually the brain is or the biological system represents. Opposition to mainstream should be done sensibly. Toppling the world of “logic” that started with Bertrand Russel’s “principles of mathematics” in 1903, is not so easy or fun. Criticizing the mainstream science is good but not without an alternative in our hand that is concrete. Those who challenge the mainstream science (brain is a computer, neuron is a switch, all information processing happens through the skin of neuron body or membrane, but everything inside neuron is just a blank, neural network is a circuit etc), they are mostly not serious. If the brain is not Turing machine, then tell us what is that elementary machine? Well, in the last 100 years of development of logic, no one talked about making decisions without “logic”. Note that everyone tried to topple the logical world, but failed. Why? The inverse of “logic” is “illogical” which means “nonsense” to us for the current science. Making sense in an illogical way is the way to go. But the question is how?

Microtubule showed the way to us. With a decade long research on brain and biomaterials, we never tried to forcefully tag biomaterials and biosystems as electronic shop equipments. We felt that instead of screaming “everything is wrong”, we should carefully observe the biosystem and find what kind of systems do they make. Our papers are technical, but here is a summary of what we found.

We found that the biological systems while building living machines, does not make a switch or circuit, it wants to make a clock inside a clock inside a clock…. in a nested structure. The wiring we observe in the brain and at several biological structure is an illusion, every single biological machine is a frequency wheel, just like a clock the wheel is played as a music. Every biological system is a musical device of a very new kind. Unlike Tuning forks, they have several fundamental resonance frequencies, and they select those frequencies to play music, and those musical notes are such that they represents geometric shapes and information, so it is not harmonic, but an anharmonic device. This discovery is not “simple” as it appears. Just imagine, music representing banana and apple are being played in a device as two simple pieces of music in a loop, then if one activates an apple by synchrony or resonance, the other is played. Thus, there is no reduction of decisions like we see in the logic gates and hence “time cycle” to replace “bits” and “qubits”. There is no collapse. This is what we learnt from microtubule and applied on the entire human brain.

Thus, we reject “bits”, or “qubits”, we say that our experiment suggests, that we should not be debating whether brain is a quantum or classical or chaotic, those concerns are irrelevant, debates are unnecessary. There is something much more interesting and profound, that is the true nature of information. “Time cycles” as suggested above gets nested, we have verified this in neuron cells, at least 7 proteins.

Our discovery of nested clocks led to “Fractal tape” to replace the “Turing tape”. A very simple decision, “every single cell of a Turing tape has a Turing tape inside”, this statement alone collapses the foundation of a century old concept of Turing machine. We have repeated our experiments of resonance frequency measurement with the state of the art technology for various proteins and their complexes. For example we have studied “tubulin”, actin, beta spectrin, ancyrin, clathrin, collagen to understand the role of electromagnetic resonance frequencies. We found that they have a composition of resonance frequency bands. Mostly we found triplet of triplet bands that connects all.

Brain is a clock inside a clock inside a clock… there is no end to it. This particular finding changes the basic understanding about our brain. The old believes that neuron skin or membrane does everything falls apart. Neuron skin is just one of 300 different types of cavities that we have in the brain. Microtubule is also one of those 300 types. Therefore, cavity inside a cavity inside a cavity makes a resonance chain which is best arranged in the form of a frequency wheel is the machine that creates rhythms to operate.

In summary, we have not restricted ourselves to the microtubule alone, or single protein studies, or even to a few live neuron cells. We have built a series of technologies like atom probe noise free electrode system to see what is happening to the single cell when we see them simultaneously using various clocks. With 26000 proteins and more than a few hundreds of different types of cavities we have engaged into building a comprehensive model that disregards the existing massive brain building projects.

We cannot understand the dynamics of a river by mapping the wave shapes of ripples on its surface. One cavity, the neuron skin can take 100 billion new forms in 8 billion humans, mapping all neuron geometries would not tell what is our brain. However, we realized only way to go forward to let one cavity say neuron geometry to come under the influence of trillions of cavities below and millions of cavities above, and evolve geometry in 10^11 ways, then, information of music will let the neuron to dance, and that would be the way to understand the information processing in the brain.

We understand that developing geometric musical language, fractal cavity resonator model of the brain, doing experiment with neurons, proteins, complexes, and neuron clusters are not simple and easy task, but if we model it properly, we will be able to give the world of science a new way to look into the basic understanding of information. Only then perhaps people would understand, that our basic definition of information re-defines everything. Transition from “bit” to “time cycle” and providing every single cell of a Turing tape to hold a tape inside could transform everything we know about the operations of a biological system.