- Background, purpose
Making an artificial brain is a supreme goal, and this global effort is going on in the full swing. Not only this has become a prime goal for several countries across the globe, all major multinational companies are doing the same with the largest investment of the world. Brain has machines from atomic scale to the meter scale. Therefore, one has to master the technologies that spread from molecular electronics, photonics, design and synthesis of organic materials, computer science, mathematics, physics etc. For example, nano scale machines would carry out important tasks in the future. However, they should have brains providing intelligence to these nano-machines at the atomic scale. We are the first to develop a brain for the nanobots and continuously we are building more and more life-like nano-machines. World’s smallest artificial life was our target.
The fundamental building block of a life form is protein and human brain expresses almost all of the 30000 proteins. For this purpose we need to unravel the mystery of information processing in the biomaterials. Until now, people were considering that protein is like a conventional electronic component found in an electronic shop. But is that true? If not, then what is protein? Now, if protein follows an unprecedented electronics, what is the basic information in biology, in life, and in the brain? If brain is not a circuit, not a machine, not a processor like the conventional computer, then, every single research being done in the world.
- Results of research: inventing ten research fields
In the five-year period, 2011-2015, we have completed the background research for a new science for bioinformatics and associated electronics and materials science research, both experimentally and theoretically. There are ten research fields that we have created, which did not exist earlier, not even proposed. We have explained the fields in the form of a chart to our right.
By doing research on proteins we found that a new kind of fourth circuit element (we call it Hinductor ) that mankind was searching for over 150 years, we have found that device. This is research field number one. This device is used to build fractal cavity resonator which is the fundamental device used by nature for its information processing.
Information in nature is not “bits” or “qubits” its time cycle. So we have developed a new Fractal Information theory (FIT), this is our second research field. For the last 115 years we have been using only one information theory, this is the second [2, 3, 10].
No one writes a software program for nature, it does everything by itself, so an information theory was not enough we had to build a language of nature, using which the biomaterials processes information and there is no need to do programming. We call this third field as geometric musical language (GML) [3,10].
The fundamental physical process that regulates GML is fractal beating, this is a new kind of beating, an advanced form of quantum beating. There are plenty of associated features followed when we discovered this unique process. We introduced Fractal mechanics research field that also delivers all the prerequisites for the FIT and GML combo. A generic form of Quantum mechanics is therefore the fourth research field that we introduced [4, 10].
There are three research fields, which generated from this fourth research field of Fractal mechanics. First, the fractal beating we could encode in the molecular nano brain using which we could build non-chemical physical drugs, we call it musiceuticals. This is the fifth field and we have tested on cancer and Alzheimers .
Second, a new kind of chemistry we introduce for fractal reaction kinetics and fractal condensation. Thus, Fractal chemistry is the sixth research field .
Third, using GML, Fractal chemistry, FIT, and musiceuticals we have been successful to design brain jelly an organic jelly like solution that mimics the brain rhythms. Brain jelly an advancement of nano brain is our seventh research field .
Using the fourth circuit element and the fractal mechanics, we have created a genre of thermal motors. These motors harvest thermal energy and a basic element in the nano brain and brain jelly, we built thermo-electro-mechanical systems (TEMS), this is our eighth research field .
Based on FIT, GML and fractal mechanics we have created a fractal cavity resonator model of an entire human brain considering every single component of a human brain. We are building a global platform for the nested rhythms found in the brain. Modeling the vibrations and the rhythms of a human brain is our nineth research field .
This brain model shows that a fundamental prime number theory and the mathematics of e, pi, phi and i, regulates evolution of every single new features that we observe in the biomaterials and biophysics research. Therefore in the tenth field we have fused number system and geometry for finding the key evolution of symmetries that nature follows while designing and synthesizing materials .
- The prospects: the follow up commercial products
All the ten research fields that we have introduced have direct connection to industry.
First, fourth circuit element is good for ultra-low power electronics.
Second, fractal information theory is directly related to the data deluge problem that we face.
Third, geometric musical language is to avoid massive programming and the development of natural language; it is for the instantaneous solutions in an unknown situations like outer space missions.
Fourth, fractal mechanics gives us a new kind of piezoelectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties.
Fifth, musiceuticals are drugs that will have no side effects.
Six, fractal chemistry enables 100% conversion in synthesis, minimal side products and natural product synthesis.
Seven, brain jelly as the neural jelly for the futuristic robots.
Eight, TEMS, thermal energy harvesting.
Nine, human brain model for vibrational frequencies and rhythms will help treating various neurodiseases.
Ten, the prime number theory and fusion of basic geometry is formulated to predict unprecedented materials with unique properties.
1) Helical symmetries observed in proteins: An inductor made of arrayed capacitors (2010) Japanese patent has been issued on 20th August 2015 JP-511630 (world patent filed, this is the invention of fourth circuit element), Satyajit Sahu, Daisuke Fujita, Anirban Bandyopadhyay, US patent has been issued 9019685B2, 28th April 2015.
2) S. Ghosh, D. Fujita & A. Bandyopadhyay; An organic jelly made fractal logic gate with an infinite truth table; Scientific Reports 5, 11265 (2015)
3) S. Ghosh, S. Sahu, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay; Design and operation of a brain like computer: a new class of frequency-fractal computing using wireless communication in a supramolecular organic, inorganic systems. Information, (2014), 5, 28-99;
4) L. Agrawal, et al, Replacing “bits” by “time cycle”: Fractal Information Theory (FIT) and Geometrical musical language (GML) for brain inspired hypercomputing; SocPros 2016, Springer conference proceedings.
5) (a) S. Ghosh, S. Chatterjee, A. Roy, K. Ray, S. Swarnakar, D. Fujita and A. Bandyopadhyay, Resonant Oscillation Language of a Futuristic Nano-Machine-Module: Eliminating Cancer Cells & Alzheimer Aβ Plaques, Curr. Topic. Med. Chem. 15, 534-541 (2015), (b) S. Sahu, H. Oono, S. Ghosh, A. Bandyopadhyay, D. Fujita, F. Peper, T. Isokawa, R. Pati: On Cellular Automata rules of molecular arrays. Natural Computing 11(2): 311-321 (2012).
6) (a) S. Ghosh, M. Dutta, K. Ray, D. Fujita and A. Bandyopadhyay, A simultaneous one pot synthesis of two fractal structures via swapping two fractal reaction kinetic states, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 14772-14775(2016) [cover highlight]; (b) A supramolecular archtecture creation by successive phase transitions and radiations, Subrata Ghosh/Satyajit Sahu/Anirban Bandyopadhyay/Daisuke Fujita, 2014/10/29, JP2014-219958 (this is creation of nano brain)
7) (a) S. Ghosh, M. Dutta, S. Sahu, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Nano Molecular-platform: A protocol to write energy transmission program inside a molecule for bio-inspired supramolecular engineering. Adv. Func. Mater. (2014), 24, 1364-1371; [Cover page] (b) Continuously self-assembling material, Subrata Ghosh/Anirban Bandyopadhyay/Daisuke Fujita, 2014/8/7, JP2014-161746, (this is creation of nano brain)
8) Thermal Noise Driven Molecular Rotor, Subrata Ghosh/Satyajit Sahu/Daisuke Fujita/Anirban Bandyopadhyay, 2014/4/25, JP2014-091141; (this is creation of a motor for nano brain)
9) (a) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Live visualizations of single isolated tubulin protein self-assembly via tunneling current: effect of electromagnetic pumping during spontaneous growth of microtubule. Scientific Reports, 4, 7303 (2014); (b) Ghosh, S. Sahu, and A. Bandyopadhyay Evidence of massive global synchronization and the consciousness. Comment on “Consciousness in the Universe: A Review of the ‘Orch OR’ Theory”. Phys. Life Rev. (2014), 11, 83-84; (c) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, K. Hirata, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Multi-level memory-switching properties of a single brain microtubule. Applied Physics Letters 102, 123701 (2013); (d) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, B. Ghosh, K. Aswani, K. Hirata, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Atomic water channel controlling remarkable properties of a single brain microtubule: Correlating single protein to its supramolecular assembly Biosensors and Bioelectronics 47(2013)141–148, (e) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Computational myths and mysteries that have grown around microtubule in the last half a century and their possible verification; Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience 8, 1-7 (2011), (cover page)
10) Book chapter related to this article: L. Agrawal, et al; Replacing Turing tape with a Fractal tape: a new information theory, associated mechanics and decision making without computing, Matter and consciousness in Indian epistemology. Chapter 6, 87-159 (2016). Delhi, India.