Fractal time crystals and quantum time crystals: Why Frank’s adventure to advance Winfree failed?

Published October 7, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

“I am fumbled to an interest in maps among rings, and products of rings….the ring idea constitutes the skeleton, the bare bones….. only one variable the phase, only one observable, the phase…….singularities happen only in models not in the real world”. A Winfree 1977

“Singularity is almost invariably a clue”. Sherlock Holmes

“Information of the universe is not written in the “bing” but in the silence between the “bings””.

We all know about the crystal of matter, however, we all got excited to hear that matter could also form a crystal. Frank took the term “time crystal” in his 2012 PRL paper, used by A Winfree way back in 1977 (The geometry of biological time, Second edition 2003, just after his death in 2002). He even used the same phrase “ring device” taken from Winfree, and used the concept of “tick” (page 79, GBT) to edit this “ring device” to generate spontaneously a new “ring device” or a new clock. When we read the book by Winfree, it appears as if Frank was largely inspired by that book and copied everything therein. Winfree argued that (p 79) if a neuron is kept under a constant bias or kept in a calcium deficient solution, it fires spontaneously and rhythmically (Guttman et al 1979). Thus, spontaneous rhythms are born with a “tick”.

Winfree talked about material crystals that make life, like virus. To him, life is a time cycle and crystals of time cycles or rhythms is a life, every single event of life, like birth and death of a living cell, ovulation, everything is like a ring, it returns to the initial state. Mitosis cycle is considered to be a simple clock (Campbell 1964, GBT) Surprisingly we also believe in that. Nature makes time crystals and the materials take the form so that it can sing the music properly in the most feasible way. Frank wanted to provide a more concrete physical presentation of the Winfree’s work, but failed miserably. Nesting of clocks are more important and Frank did not get it at all from Winfree’s work, because nesting was largely missing. A vivid copy of Winfree’s work is found in Brain Rhythm book by G. Buzsaki, but, he merely tried to establish the very old Winfree’s concept with more examples. Nested rhythms came many times, but, a proper mathematical structure of nesting was never born. Our contribution is exactly there. We took “phase singularity” suggested by Winfree and used that as a generic tool to integrate information and proposed a new information theory which rejects the existing Integrated Information Theory (IIT) proposed by Coch and others.

Say, a pendulum is oscillating periodically, Frank Wilczek will call it a time crystal, because time is fixed like atoms are fixed in a crystal, of course it can have a classical and a quantum version. The similarity between Winfree’s proposal and Frank’s argument is enormous. Winfree talked rigorously about the dynamics in the ring, so did Frank, but Winfree said explicitly that this ring may not be a real ring and he emphasized that repeatedly, while Frank wanted to see it in real system as a pendulum. If the diameter of its time cycle changes i.e. pendulum moves a shorter distance, then, they will call it a spontaneous time symmetry breaking. Now, why the pendulum will change its oscillation diameter, if there is no friction. Spontaneous property of the system, so they call it, spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The point is that changing the diameter of a circle is fine, but when the proposal comes that all materials making the ring or the time cycle need to be frozen in the ground state and at the same time moving, this is utter nonsense. This is like considering that a particle is moving and stopping at the same time. Frank suggested that in superconducting ring put a thrust to the ionic motions and they will rotate in a circular path, then, in the ground state (even after thrust they remain in the ground state, nonsense!) they will change the rotation speed characteristically. So, we can say, that time symmetry is breaking!

If we consider the ring as a cavity resonator, then what happens in a cavity resonator we all know, we will get a fundamental frequency and then its harmonics, obviously, shall we say that in every single cavity resonator in the universe time symmetry is spontaneously broken? No, we cannot say that kind of nonsense, because spontaneous birth of a clock or spontaneous symmetry breaking is driven by a human choice, or free will. We are externally applying a force or an energy, then use of the word “spontaneous” is a crime. This is “induced”. Monroe et al has claimed (ArXiv first experimental evidence of time crystal) that they have experimentally realized time crystal in a superconducting ring, however, by that logic every single guitar string is a time crystal. Because the time profile would look similar and “melting of the crystal”, is a mere imagination

The mistake made by Frank was that he did not consider “phase singularity” suggested by A Winfree. He have gone into extensive details to prove that there truly exists a “phase singularity”, his list is rich in examples, and he himself did several experiments to establish that. Actually, phase singularity concept was introduced by Brady 1975 (p81) Moreover, he came up with several observations which could change the way we topologically represent the rhythms. Phase reset, amplitude reset are two examples that one must take into consideration. He never put these parameters into a mathematical perspective. However, he did suggest that there is a self-similarity in phase integration. Phi = Phi + 1. Change in the amplitude of a rhythm changes the phase of other interconnected rhythms. The grammar of topological treatment of rhythms or time cycles or clocks were never established. Though Winfree suggested the birth of a singularity due to the change in higher phase (page 52, Geometry of biological time), and every point of singularity is a screw axis. Whenever there is a decomposition of “bing” a expansion of the information sphere generates a spiral or helical motion radially outward. Because there is a full rotation of the circle as all system points reset their clock. So, clock reset with external motion is the origin of movement in the time cycle network. This is the origin of helix in nature, if we include Winfree findings (WinFree 1973a) with ours philosophically. This is beautiful to see that every time environment changes something, the effect builds a singularity and that singularity causes all associated clocks to reset and thus, allowing a helical growth. This should be the construction route of a time crystal. It’s mathematics and conceptual provisions are much more profound than Frank’s time crystal.

And we did develop the grammar very extensively, we told that there will be a “bing” at the point of “phase singularity” and these bings, hold geometric information. Winfree’s phase reset study showed that after reset if we plot phase 0 points we get Archimedes spiral. Thus, the development of e, pi and phi with i was inherently evident in Winfree’s analysis. The time crystals if we really want to build, it will be a vortex jelly (page 69, The geometry of time). One could find that this rotation is quantized, thus, quantization is a classical process, as it should be, however, continuously, the new singularities are born and resetting the clocks would happen all over the information network or 3D phase sphere. Of course clock reset is localized, but the domain of localization is redefined every time. Thus, uncertainty and superposition of several ways of resetting the amplitude or clock remain there, giving birth to quantum jelly of time, a true analogue of time

The Winfree’s journey into the concept of black hole and astrophysics leads us to a point (page 69-71, The geometry of time) where we could discuss the correlation between CTC (close time cycle loop and the time crystal). CTC is much closer to what Frank has been arguing (https://www.its.caltech.edu/~kip/scripts/ClosedTimelikeCurves-II121.pdf). CTC has a history of nearly a century (1927 van Stockum first made the solution of Einstein’s field equation, which represents a infinitely long cylinder made of rigidly and rapidly rotating dust). It would really have been wonderful of Frank could adopt his time crystal from CTC not from Winfree’s time ring. Because time ring and time crystal of Winfree survives only when we enter inside the singularity and find another world, so it will become a fractal crystal of time neither classical nor quantum as such.

Franck took everything from Winfree but “singularity”, had he taken that, he would not have to get into a blunder of adventures.

2011-2015 a achievement report of our research

Published October 3, 2016 by anirbanbandyo
  1. Background, purpose

Making an artificial brain is a supreme goal, and this global effort is going on in the full swing. Not only this has become a prime goal for several countries across the globe, all major multinational companies are doing the same with the largest investment of the world. Brain has machines from atomic scale to the meter scale. Therefore, one has to master the technologies that spread from molecular electronics, photonics, design and synthesis of organic materials, computer science, mathematics, physics etc. For example, nano scale machines would carry out important tasks in the future. However, they should have brains providing intelligence to these nano-machines at the atomic scale. We are the first to develop a brain for the nanobots and continuously we are building more and more life-like nano-machines. World’s smallest artificial life was our target.

The fundamental building block of a life form is protein and human brain expresses almost all of the 30000 proteins. For this purpose we need to unravel the mystery of information processing in the biomaterials. Until now, people were considering that protein is like a conventional electronic component found in an electronic shop. But is that true? If not, then what is protein? Now, if protein follows an unprecedented electronics, what is the basic information in biology, in life, and in the brain? If brain is not a circuit, not a machine, not a processor like the conventional computer, then, every single research being done in the world.

 

  1. Results of research: inventing ten research fields

In the five-year period, 2011-2015, we have completed the background research for a new science for bioinformatics and associated electronics and materials science research, both experimentally and theoretically. There are ten research fields that we have created, which did not exist earlier, not even proposed. We have explained the fields in the form of a chart to our right.

By doing research on proteins we found that a new kind of fourth circuit element (we call it Hinductor [1]) that mankind was searching for over 150 years, we have found that device. This is research field number one. This device is used to build fractal cavity resonator which is the fundamental device used by nature for its information processing.

Information in nature is not “bits” or “qubits” its time cycle. So we have developed a new Fractal Information theory (FIT), this is our second research field. For the last 115 years we have been using only one information theory, this is the second [2, 3, 10].

No one writes a software program for nature, it does everything by itself, so an information theory was not enough we had to build a language of nature, using which the biomaterials processes information and there is no need to do programming. We call this third field as geometric musical language (GML) [3,10].

The fundamental physical process that regulates GML is fractal beating, this is a new kind of beating, an advanced form of quantum beating. There are plenty of associated features followed when we discovered this unique process. We introduced Fractal mechanics research field that also delivers all the prerequisites for the FIT and GML combo. A generic form of Quantum mechanics is therefore the fourth research field that we introduced [4, 10].

There are three research fields, which generated from this fourth research field of Fractal mechanics. First, the fractal beating we could encode in the molecular nano brain using which we could build non-chemical physical drugs, we call it musiceuticals. This is the fifth field and we have tested on cancer and Alzheimers [5].

Second, a new kind of chemistry we introduce for fractal reaction kinetics and fractal condensation. Thus, Fractal chemistry is the sixth research field [6].

Third, using GML, Fractal chemistry, FIT, and musiceuticals we have been successful to design brain jelly an organic jelly like solution that mimics the brain rhythms. Brain jelly an advancement of nano brain is our seventh research field [7].

Using the fourth circuit element and the fractal mechanics, we have created a genre of thermal motors. These motors harvest thermal energy and a basic element in the nano brain and brain jelly, we built thermo-electro-mechanical systems (TEMS), this is our eighth research field [8].

Based on FIT, GML and fractal mechanics we have created a fractal cavity resonator model of an entire human brain considering every single component of a human brain. We are building a global platform for the nested rhythms found in the brain. Modeling the vibrations and the rhythms of a human brain is our nineth research field [9].

This brain model shows that a fundamental prime number theory and the mathematics of e, pi, phi and i, regulates evolution of every single new features that we observe in the biomaterials and biophysics research. Therefore in the tenth field we have fused number system and geometry for finding the key evolution of symmetries that nature follows while designing and synthesizing materials [10].

 

  1. The prospects: the follow up commercial products

All the ten research fields that we have introduced have direct connection to industry.

First, fourth circuit element is good for ultra-low power electronics.

Second, fractal information theory is directly related to the data deluge problem that we face.

Third, geometric musical language is to avoid massive programming and the development of natural language; it is for the instantaneous solutions in an unknown situations like outer space missions.

Fourth, fractal mechanics gives us a new kind of piezoelectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties.

Fifth, musiceuticals are drugs that will have no side effects.

Six, fractal chemistry enables 100% conversion in synthesis, minimal side products and natural product synthesis.

Seven, brain jelly as the neural jelly for the futuristic robots.

Eight, TEMS, thermal energy harvesting.

Nine, human brain model for vibrational frequencies and rhythms will help treating various neurodiseases.

Ten, the prime number theory and fusion of basic geometry is formulated to predict unprecedented materials with unique properties.

 

References

1) Helical symmetries observed in proteins: An inductor made of arrayed capacitors (2010) Japanese patent has been issued on 20th August 2015 JP-511630 (world patent filed, this is the invention of fourth circuit element), Satyajit Sahu, Daisuke Fujita, Anirban Bandyopadhyay, US patent has been issued 9019685B2, 28th April 2015.

2) S. Ghosh, D. Fujita & A. Bandyopadhyay; An organic jelly made fractal logic gate with an infinite truth table; Scientific Reports 5, 11265 (2015)

3) S. Ghosh, S. Sahu, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay; Design and operation of a brain like computer: a new class of frequency-fractal computing using wireless communication in a supramolecular organic, inorganic systems. Information, (2014), 5, 28-99;

4) L. Agrawal, et al, Replacing “bits” by “time cycle”: Fractal Information Theory (FIT) and Geometrical musical language (GML) for brain inspired hypercomputing; SocPros 2016, Springer conference proceedings.

5) (a) S. Ghosh, S. Chatterjee, A. Roy, K. Ray, S. Swarnakar, D. Fujita and A. Bandyopadhyay, Resonant Oscillation Language of a Futuristic Nano-Machine-Module: Eliminating Cancer Cells & Alzheimer Aβ Plaques, Curr. Topic. Med. Chem. 15, 534-541 (2015), (b) S. Sahu, H. Oono, S. Ghosh, A. Bandyopadhyay, D. Fujita, F. Peper, T. Isokawa, R. Pati: On Cellular Automata rules of molecular arrays. Natural Computing 11(2): 311-321 (2012).

6) (a) S. Ghosh, M. Dutta, K. Ray, D. Fujita and A. Bandyopadhyay, A simultaneous one pot synthesis of two fractal structures via swapping two fractal reaction kinetic states, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 14772-14775(2016) [cover highlight]; (b) A supramolecular archtecture creation by successive phase transitions and radiations, Subrata Ghosh/Satyajit Sahu/Anirban Bandyopadhyay/Daisuke Fujita, 2014/10/29, JP2014-219958 (this is creation of nano brain)

7) (a) S. Ghosh, M. Dutta, S. Sahu, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Nano Molecular-platform: A protocol to write energy transmission program inside a molecule for bio-inspired supramolecular engineering. Adv. Func. Mater. (2014), 24, 1364-1371; [Cover page] (b) Continuously self-assembling material, Subrata Ghosh/Anirban Bandyopadhyay/Daisuke Fujita,  2014/8/7, JP2014-161746, (this is creation of nano brain)

8) Thermal Noise Driven Molecular Rotor, Subrata Ghosh/Satyajit Sahu/Daisuke Fujita/Anirban Bandyopadhyay, 2014/4/25, JP2014-091141; (this is creation of a motor for nano brain)

9) (a) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Live visualizations of single isolated tubulin protein self-assembly via tunneling current: effect of electromagnetic pumping during spontaneous growth of microtubule. Scientific Reports, 4, 7303 (2014); (b) Ghosh, S. Sahu, and A. Bandyopadhyay Evidence of massive global synchronization and the consciousness. Comment on “Consciousness in the Universe: A Review of the ‘Orch OR’ Theory”. Phys. Life Rev. (2014), 11, 83-84; (c) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, K. Hirata, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Multi-level memory-switching properties of a single brain microtubule. Applied Physics Letters 102, 123701 (2013); (d) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, B. Ghosh, K. Aswani, K. Hirata, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Atomic water channel controlling remarkable properties of a single brain microtubule: Correlating single protein to its supramolecular assembly Biosensors and Bioelectronics 47(2013)141–148, (e) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Computational myths and mysteries that have grown around microtubule in the last half a century and their possible verification; Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience 8, 1-7 (2011), (cover page)

10) Book chapter related to this article: L. Agrawal, et al; Replacing Turing tape with a Fractal tape: a new information theory, associated mechanics and decision making without computing, Matter and consciousness in Indian epistemology. Chapter 6, 87-159 (2016). Delhi, India.

What is memory in the brain? How many different kinds of memories in the brain?

Published September 22, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Vibrations holds the key, for everything. Until now, we were considering that the vibrations and rhythms are only key to some enzyme cycles. But our proposal is that deep down below even to the molecular scale there are rhythms. And there are 12 types of memories that works at the 12 scales of operations in the brain.

All memories are geometric in nature

1. Periodic memory: Chain of guiter string we see mostly in DNA, proteins, period of periods in the nodes of the string. Edit the memory by changing the periodic length of elementary point oscillators.
2. Spiral of spiral memory, in DNA and proteins, also in microtubules. Edit the memory by changing the twists and the number of hierarchical periods by inducing more and more twists.
3. Vector memory, orientation of helices to make cavities inside protein. 3D orientation makes it a multipolar complex 3D vibrational element. Edit the memory by changing the orientation of column oscillators.
4. Lattice memory, microtubule, actin-beta spectrin network, protein complex. Change the lattice parameters to edit the memory.
5. Chemico-electric memory, chemical transmission cycles. There are nested time cycles highly interconnected, to edit the memory, change the diameter, phase, delay or starting points.
6. Leak density of Cavity memory, ion diffusion holes in the cellular membrane. To edit the memory change the leak density on the cavity surface.
7. Spiral geometric memory, assembly of neurons etc. To edit the memory, change the pitch-diameter-length of the spiral.
8. Vortex or fractal memory, memory stored in the geometric parameters of vortex. A vortex has divergence parameters and scale repeat unit, these two parameters are changed to edit memory.
9.Nodal & polar memory: Nodes in the spinal cord brain network (nodes in a tear drop). Geometry of the shapes are changed among 8 different choices from teardrop to ellipsoid to edit nodes and polarity memory.
10. Electromechanical phase memory: organs sync and desync like a giant molecule. This memory is edited by changing the bond length or wiring length and distribution.
11. Multipolar loop in Phase space loop memory: Hyperspace memory. This memory is non-physical and hence not editable.
12. Phase of phase duality generator memory: hierarchical assembly of reality sphere. This memory is non-physical and hence not editable.

How many different kinds of rhythms are there in our brain?

Published September 22, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Sound is a mechanical rhythm and we have 12 different rhythms in the brain, like

1. Electromagnetic rhythm, [carrier is photon or electromagnetic wave is trapped in a cavity to generate beating or rhythm].
2. Magnetic rhythm, [spiral flow of electrons or ions, they are the carriers editing the magnetic flux, geometry of path forms the periodicity].
3. Electrical potential rhythm, [change in the arrangement of dipoles editing the electric field, fractal distribution of local resonators generate a time function of potential]
4. Solitonic & quasi particle rhythm, [carriers are solitons, defect in the order flows in a ordered structure, the ordered structure is edited to make a loop].
5. Ionic diffusion rhythm, [ions are carriers, tube like cavities are formed in a circular shape or continuous path to generate a loop]
6. Molecular chemical rhythm, [molecules like proteins, enzymes etc are carriers, tube like cavities are formed and sensory systems make sure a circular signalling pathway]
7. Quantum beating, [spin is the carrier, wavefunctions interfere in a squeezed excited photonic, electromagnetic or spin state]
8. Density of states rhythm, [orbitals coupling, wave function modulation, virtual carrier, a virtual continuous loop is made]
9. van-der Waal rhythm, [atomic thermal vibration is looped in a spiral pathway].
10. electro-mechanical rhythm [classical beating with a mechanical beating like tuning fork]
11. Quasi-charge rhythm polaron, polariton [topological fractured band based continuous loops]
12. mechanical rhythm, sound wave [similarly elastic pathways to make a circuit of sound waves].

Just imagine, such beautiful patterns are one of 12 different formations. Their physics is different, application domain and range are different.

Ten inventions that we contributed from NIMS, Japan and would consolidate in the next 10 years (2016-2026)

Published September 11, 2016 by anirbanbandyo
  1. Information Theory:          A new information theory. FIT or Fractal Information Theory. This is a new way of computing or decision-making by fractal logic gate, or fractal cavity resonator. For this purpose we proposed Fractal tape like Turing tape and Fractom machine. We often use nested cycle metric to generate fundamental geometric constants.
  2. Mechanics:           We have been developing a new generic version of quantum mechanics, FM or Fractal Mechanics, We conceptualized a new fractal harmonic oscillator alternative to QFT
  3. Language:         We have been developing a new geometric musical language (GML) and constructed Continued Fraction Geometric Alzebra (CFGA) and Geometric musical calculator (GMC).
  4. Human brain model:          We develop fractal cavity resonator model of the human brain, (FCR-Brain) and Frequency Wheel of prime model (FWPM) for any biological machine. We develop cavity math for protein design for life forms. Nested Rhythm map of the Human brain (NRM-Brain). We discovered ferroelectric, piezoelectric & pyroelectric properties of microtubule and every protein, we have also discovered that protein has electromagnetic resonance, Universal protein circuit model (UPCM).
  5. Geometric number system theory:             We construct and information version for developing the theory of everything, and a theory of consciousness we call it Time cycle universe theory (TCU), this is not like GUT, ours is a set of integrated mathematical constructs and protocols that would help in the understanding the universe and or consciousness. For example relating e, pi, phi with all fundamental constants, frequency wheel of primes, ordered factor etc.
  6. Fourth circuit element:            We invent fourth circuit element, Hinductor
  7. Thermal energy harvesting machines:           We invent artificial life forms, kT driven thermal nanobots, Thermo Electro mechanical system (TEMS).
  8. Musiceutical nanobots:            We have developed musiceuticals, vibration based medicines, Nano Brain. Main focused diseases have been cancer and alzheimers.
  9. Fractal chemical kinetics and condensation:          We have developed a new kind of multi-kinetic synthesis, we invent a new class of condensation beyond Froelich condensation, Fractal condensation
  10. Brain jelly:             We invented organic jelly that replicates biological rhythm like information processing, Brain jelly. We invent world’s smallest neural network. Multilevel switch. Fractal beating like quantum beating for nested beating to be used to create fractal cavity resonator for brain jelly.

research-protocol-in-our-lab

If we consider there is no space, no mass, only time, then?

Published September 8, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Cosmology and elementary particle physics would end by generating a new world of physics above and within: There are proposals that time does not exist and mass is everything. The history of science started with space and time and mass as a separate quantity. Always in the history of science we have seen that mass is deconstructed to a sum of smaller masses, most of the places in a mass is found to be empty and every time we lost a lots of mass. If everywhere 99% is empty and there is no apparent lower limit then, relying on mass as a fundamental parameter is silly. This is why we rejected “mass” as a fundamental parameter.

We told that the lost mass is gone to bind the particles containing the mass. Einstein’s E=mC^2 is such a formulae, and if you see our galaxy far far from the boundaries of the universe then you would find it as a single dot of mass, similarly a molecule or an atom. It is something very new only when we enter inside. This journey for mankind would continue forever. Cosmic world is not the single world out there. There is something beyond cosmology both outside and beneath the worlds of Higgs Boson. If a human is 1.7 meters and an atom is 0.16 nm, then 10^9 order spatial gap is bridged within our conscience.

Who responds? The world of “silence” and “bing”: Therefore, it is safe to consider mass is sum of spaces, as Einstein did. However, the journey should not end there. We consider a signal or a “bing” from a mass, does it come from a mass? No. Then where from? The world within, the discrete atomic energy levels emit and absorb photons, not the atomic mass. Those discrete energy levels have symmetries of their own and we often say that the energy is processed by breaking symmetry, changing one kind of ordering to another. One kind of ordering to another means change in the geometric shape. Who makes the geometric shape? Elementary particles and their ordering changes. And what does it change? The geometric phase. So the existing science tells us that the dynamic phase that we see for a particle is an illusion, it is an outburst of several elementary particles within, its own information is in the geometric phase or the silence between the bings. Two phases are essential because we need intensity of the bing to associate with the geometric phase.

bing is a boundary of silence, bing is a noise of lower hidden world.

How “time” would take the responsibility to do what mass and the space does?

The lower the mass of the exchange particle, the farther the force is felt. It means that the mass and the space are already correlated. Photon is spin 1 and Graviton is spin 2, both are massless and therefore long range forces. Mesons are heavy, hence work at a shorter distance. Instead of getting into these troubles, why not we consider that mass is a geometric transition in the time cycles. Then, space is relative difference in the time cycle perimeters. These are easy routes to

Will then the time would move forward? What is said by Quantum? Second law of thermodynamics suggests that entropy would be increasing, which means that universe has a fundamental property to get more and more disordered, why we do not know. But one thing for sure, we say that time is moving forward only because we lose information. This lose of information is like time cycles do not get connected and form an integrated network, instead they fall apart. But, why should the time cycles get disintegrated? Why is the need, unless we are trying to build another network of time cycles?

The arrow of time is a reality only when we consider that information is destroyed, this is how our thermodynamic concept of time or the arrow of time is built.

Quantum’s signature is in instantaneous control. The problem is that the scientists do not consider instantaneous effects as an absolute property. They think of negative time so that they could add a cause-effect scenario, why do we need to go to the past create cause?

What is second law of thermodynamics and entropy and the flow of time, if we consider nested time cycle as the fundamental structure of the universe? Is there any arrow of time? 

When we consider nested time cycle, we enter a very different world, there is no past present future, location of an observer in the time cycle network determines what should he or she define as network geometry. Still there was no past present and future, many directions of time as proposed by Carroll in 2004 (eternal inflation).

At local time time cycles we may see that continuously the time cycles are breaking apart and somewhere in the network it is growing, there is no necessity that there would always be growth or decay or even conservation of total number of time cycles. These questions are irrelevant. Therefore, entropy of the universe if we consider time cycles is a function of time. And there is no flow of time, both the questions have all possible answer. In the conventional study destruction of information ensures flow of time, increase in entropy, but information does not have any quantity for us, we have upper and lower time limits and density of information, several other factors, but not quantity. Therefore, we are not answering the queries related to these topics.

Massless particles have time cycles propagating to infinity. Hence measuring in Quantum does not require to consider negative time. So, flow of time is not required for any reasons. We created Quantum but could not come out of the mentality of believing the science of simultaneity, where causality could never ever be essential.

The existing concept of “block universe” has to go, it is not very useful (https://www.quantamagazine.org/20160719-time-and-cosmology/): Physics laws are time-symmetric — that is, the physics they describe is the same, regardless of whether the variable called “time” increases or decreases. Moreover, they say nothing at all about the point we call “now” — a special moment (or so it appears) for us, but seemingly undefined when we talk about the universe at large. The resulting timeless cosmos is sometimes called a “block universe” — a static block of space-time in which any flow of time, or passage through it, must presumably be a mental construct or other illusion. There are even proposals for evolving Bloch universe (George Ellis) where past is fixed but the universe future is open https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1407/1407.7243.pdf  Causal set Theory suggested that the universe is continuous at elementary level but discrete at large level http://www.einstein-online.info/spotlights/causal_sets?__hstc=13887208.aa7b15315168b61d73452cb836a9622f.1473287636669.1473287636669.1473287636671.2&__hssc=13887208.1.1473287636671&__hsfp=4242301618

Fay Dowker, a physicist at Imperial College London, referred to this as “accretive time.” She invited everyone to think of space-time as accreting new space-time atoms in way roughly analogous to a seabed depositing new layers of sediment over time. General relativity yields only a block, but causal sets seem to allow a “becoming,” she said. “The block universe is a static thing — a static picture of the world — whereas this process of becoming is dynamical.”

There will always be a moment of maximum density and minimum complexity (Koslowski), for us, from big bang one time cycle is running, and once the equilibrium is reached it will be a new unit and begin the journey as a new journey of primes.

 

 

 

Why existing information theory EIT would fail to resolve the data deluge problem?

Published August 9, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Information if considered as “bits” or “Qubits” contains no information, this is a reality.

10 reasons why Existing Information Theory, EIT though applied in Classical and Quantum can never solve the data deluge problem.

(1) EIT discretizes nature, losing most of its information; user sees what it wants to see, not what the system is, then imagine a theory, try to rebuild the natural system by adjusting that imagination and glorify the equation that fits the observation.

(2) EIT rejects nature’s original information structure, consolidates a faith that everything that happens in nature is an output of a series of events happening one after another. Nature is not sequential, not a circuit, adding many parallel lines do not mimic nature’s information structure.

(3) EIT isolates the concept information and structure, as if information is a property of a structure.

(4) EIT endorses information as universal truth. Though Quantum information theory explores the phase space, sensed information is always considered as real and factual truth. Note that phase is always unseen part in an information.

(5) EIT practices intelligence as mysterious real function: match output and input by any means, out-of-blue senseless functions are endorsed as key to nature (e.g. cancer cell growth = radioactivity).

(6) EIT believes hierarchical processing means connection between logic-less mysterious functions: “deep learning” means keeping several mysterious layers between input and output, none makes sense, but better fits observation.

(7) EIT believes randomness leads to creativity: creating something new does not mean making an unpredictable choice, use of randomness fools human sense.

(8) EIT endorses imagination of every single outcome and encodes solution: Self-taught software (STS) is a mere extrapolation of outcomes; extrapolation is not prediction.

(9) EIT believes in making decision by reduction of choices:

(10) EIT believes speed and amount of resources can solve data deluge & everything: The quest for better computing is faster speed and more memory/power.