Why do we have spirals everywhere in Nature?

Published November 28, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

The largest number of confusing articles we can find in nature regarding the origin of spirals in nature. No one knows why does it happen, and starts “sacred”, magical, hidden secret of the universe. Well, abundance of the spirals does make us amazed, but not enough to feel that it is god’s choice. “We find spirals in the DNA double helix, sunflowers, the path of draining water, weather patterns (including hurricanes), vine tendrils, phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem), galaxies, the horns of various animals, mollusc shells, the nautilus shell, snail shells, whirlpools, ferns and algae”. The reason for the spiral is simple.

There are four numbers e, phi and pi, they are also connected by i, e^2 + phi^2 = pi^2. Therefore if a term increases by unity fraction it is phi, if a number increases as production of fraction it is e, when both of their square increases it twists the angle to a difference plane, try an orthogonal triangle, you would see how 60 degree and 30 degree angles between the triangle would change, when it completes to circularly covered path we got to complete the pi. This is the reason for forming a spiral. Not the equation but the physical significance of e and phi suggests the most simplest form of growth of a material, one is additive and the other is multiplicative. Most of us are unaware of the physical significance of e and phi, a little google search would show that there are plenty of articles which suggest why and how these two series are the simplest route to account for growth.

The identity requires a 3D term to accommodate mismatch, e^2 + phi^2 + z^2 = pi^2. Then we get z= i/e this is also another series with a phase that changes the term. There is a orthogonal phase editing that helps creating a vortex from spiral.

Origin of spiral or vortex is hidden in the physical significance of e and phi, its continued fraction expressions, that brings them into a half circle.

The criminality of Quantum Biology: How Quantum advocates fool us

Published November 4, 2016 by anirbanbandyo
Every single molecule in the entire human brain and the body is a quantum mechanical device. Not just that a giant crystal that we can hold in our hand is a quantum device. The living body is full of quantum devices. A virus is just a crystal of molecules, so it is a quantum device. The point is that every single molecule in the entire world in every living species is a Quantum device, and they all have spins in the entangled state. We do not need to prove this separately. Alas, people are now taking molecules one by one and proving that the molecule is quantum mechanical and then extend the boon of quantum to a biological phenomenon and suggest look the phenomenon is quantum. But the Quantum advocates do it with a trick, they, use their words carefully, to hint it enough and let the journalists do their job.
The gap between the two is enormous, before fooling the scientific community at large, one must understand that one major step is missing. But this is serious. This article I am writing only to warn that these marketing tricks is nothing but criminality, an honest quantum advocate must clearly hint that connecting a biological phenomenon and the quantum effect is far fetched.
So in summary, the advocates of Quantum biology takes a molecule, shows quantum entanglement in the molecular system, and then speculates using their wild imagination that it helps in fundamental biological activity. For example FMO complex in the plant leaves. In the protein complex, there is entanglement, but, how does that helps in photosynthesis? Can it be shown how exactly a chemical reaction is harnessing the entanglement? No. The problem is that no one did this experiment and even without doing this difficult job, they claim that it increases the efficient energy transfer. Because that is so obvious, it is a faith, it is a believe, it is a selling spree.
Science is where we do not use believe or faith we design simple experiments to support our needs. Here our need is a correlation experiment. Where entanglement would continue even implementing the photosynthetic chemical reaction. If we fail to show this, then, definitely, we are just proving FMO is quantum which even if we would not have proved, mattered a bit. On many occasions we could argue that artificial coherent wave originated from the half-silvered glass and a laser source, how does that happen in the biological system? Our research should focus on that point first.
The same applies for our microtubule research also, we have shown it is Quantum, but it proves nothing that brain is a Quantum device, or any information processing in the brain at all happens Quantum mechanically. But wait, we started our work there and looked deep into the system over the years. And we did what the general quantum entanglement research was missing. We found a new structure of information in the microtubule and then also discovered its integration rules, which just, not a perfect Quantum mechanics, but a new form of Quantum mechanics which is much more generic than Quantum mechanics plays the role.
We have not finished our research but trying to find a way out, if there is no Quantum, then, that is fine, but then what is new then? We suggest it is Fractal mechanics, a completely new form of quantum mechanics where you do not do renormalization, but dig deep inside the singularity and harness its features with the fundamental understanding of choices of vibrations. In other words, we follow the geometric pattern of vibrations to map the singularity path and therein lies the route to integrate fractal mechanics, classical mechanics and Quantum mechanics. This mechanics holds some properties of Quantum mechanics and that could easily be integrated over a long distance, and it harness thermal THz radiation, so heat is not an enemy but it is a necessity.
  1. L. Agrawal, K. Ray, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay, Fractal Information Theory (FIT) derived Geometric Musical Language (GML) for brain inspired hypercomputing; Advanced Intelligence System and Computing AISC, Procedings of Soft computing conference SocPros 2016, Springer.
  2. L. Agrawal, S. Ghosh, B. Ghosh, K. Ray, S. Sahu, D. Fujita, A Bandyopadhyay; Replacing Turing tape with a Fractal tape: a new information theory, associated mechanics and decision making without computing, Consciousness: Integrating Indian and Western perspective. Chapter 6, 87-159 (2016). Delhi, India.

Subtractive manufacturing, additive manufacturing and then fractal manufacturing

Published October 24, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Last 100 years we have seen that engineers used to cut tools into pieces and then connect them together to make a nice products. It was subtractive engineering. Making a hole, cutting it into a geometric shape, pasting, what a culture it was for the manufacturing. Now, we are having additive manufacturing in terms of 3D printing. This kind of additive manufacturing will change the world, we will be making things that would initiate adding liquids, jelly, and create just everything.

There are several limitations of subtractive engineering. We often make the machines bigger, we need smaller tools to make a smaller products. Often it was energy consuming and waste of materials was enormous. Now with the additive engineering, we create machines taking exactly what we need. We do not need to cut things. Of course we will see 3D printing to take over and destroy entire system, economy and everything in the world. A new world order will be set and we will have to face loss of jobs in a huge number.

Then there were two more classes of manufacturing waiting in the lab desk, self-assembly and fractal condensation. Self-assembly was proposed in 1988 and fractal reaction kinetics and related condensation was proposed by us in 2016. Self-assembly is found to be limited because it requires materials in a particular form and elementary structure to proceed. While fractal condensation is a brilliant way of putting it, whenever “fractal” word includes in the formation of any structure, self-assembly from a nucleus by core shell growth and then self-assembly of several such nucleus run simultaneously.

Until now the grammar of fractal manufacturing noted above is not established, but, one could use number system and the pattern of primes to regulate the growth process. If a manufacturing follows the pattern of primes, it will never be left alone, no need to program and self-healing would be fundamental to it. For self-healing “fractal” is always the best choice.

 

Fractal time crystals and quantum time crystals: Why Frank’s adventure to advance Winfree failed?

Published October 7, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

“I am fumbled to an interest in maps among rings, and products of rings….the ring idea constitutes the skeleton, the bare bones….. only one variable the phase, only one observable, the phase…….singularities happen only in models not in the real world”. A Winfree 1977

“Singularity is almost invariably a clue”. Sherlock Holmes

“Information of the universe is not written in the “bing” but in the silence between the “bings””.

We all know about the crystal of matter, however, we all got excited to hear that matter could also form a crystal. Frank took the term “time crystal” in his 2012 PRL paper, used by A Winfree way back in 1977 (The geometry of biological time, Second edition 2003, just after his death in 2002). He even used the same phrase “ring device” taken from Winfree, and used the concept of “tick” (page 79, GBT) to edit this “ring device” to generate spontaneously a new “ring device” or a new clock. When we read the book by Winfree, it appears as if Frank was largely inspired by that book and copied everything therein. Winfree argued that (p 79) if a neuron is kept under a constant bias or kept in a calcium deficient solution, it fires spontaneously and rhythmically (Guttman et al 1979). Thus, spontaneous rhythms are born with a “tick”.

Winfree talked about material crystals that make life, like virus. To him, life is a time cycle and crystals of time cycles or rhythms is a life, every single event of life, like birth and death of a living cell, ovulation, everything is like a ring, it returns to the initial state. Mitosis cycle is considered to be a simple clock (Campbell 1964, GBT) Surprisingly we also believe in that. Nature makes time crystals and the materials take the form so that it can sing the music properly in the most feasible way. Frank wanted to provide a more concrete physical presentation of the Winfree’s work, but failed miserably. Nesting of clocks are more important and Frank did not get it at all from Winfree’s work, because nesting was largely missing. A vivid copy of Winfree’s work is found in Brain Rhythm book by G. Buzsaki, but, he merely tried to establish the very old Winfree’s concept with more examples. Nested rhythms came many times, but, a proper mathematical structure of nesting was never born. Our contribution is exactly there. We took “phase singularity” suggested by Winfree and used that as a generic tool to integrate information and proposed a new information theory which rejects the existing Integrated Information Theory (IIT) proposed by Coch and others.

Say, a pendulum is oscillating periodically, Frank Wilczek will call it a time crystal, because time is fixed like atoms are fixed in a crystal, of course it can have a classical and a quantum version. The similarity between Winfree’s proposal and Frank’s argument is enormous. Winfree talked rigorously about the dynamics in the ring, so did Frank, but Winfree said explicitly that this ring may not be a real ring and he emphasized that repeatedly, while Frank wanted to see it in real system as a pendulum. If the diameter of its time cycle changes i.e. pendulum moves a shorter distance, then, they will call it a spontaneous time symmetry breaking. Now, why the pendulum will change its oscillation diameter, if there is no friction. Spontaneous property of the system, so they call it, spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The point is that changing the diameter of a circle is fine, but when the proposal comes that all materials making the ring or the time cycle need to be frozen in the ground state and at the same time moving, this is utter nonsense. This is like considering that a particle is moving and stopping at the same time. Frank suggested that in superconducting ring put a thrust to the ionic motions and they will rotate in a circular path, then, in the ground state (even after thrust they remain in the ground state, nonsense!) they will change the rotation speed characteristically. So, we can say, that time symmetry is breaking!

If we consider the ring as a cavity resonator, then what happens in a cavity resonator we all know, we will get a fundamental frequency and then its harmonics, obviously, shall we say that in every single cavity resonator in the universe time symmetry is spontaneously broken? No, we cannot say that kind of nonsense, because spontaneous birth of a clock or spontaneous symmetry breaking is driven by a human choice, or free will. We are externally applying a force or an energy, then use of the word “spontaneous” is a crime. This is “induced”. Monroe et al has claimed (ArXiv first experimental evidence of time crystal) that they have experimentally realized time crystal in a superconducting ring, however, by that logic every single guitar string is a time crystal. Because the time profile would look similar and “melting of the crystal”, is a mere imagination

The mistake made by Frank was that he did not consider “phase singularity” suggested by A Winfree. He have gone into extensive details to prove that there truly exists a “phase singularity”, his list is rich in examples, and he himself did several experiments to establish that. Actually, phase singularity concept was introduced by Brady 1975 (p81) Moreover, he came up with several observations which could change the way we topologically represent the rhythms. Phase reset, amplitude reset are two examples that one must take into consideration. He never put these parameters into a mathematical perspective. However, he did suggest that there is a self-similarity in phase integration. Phi = Phi + 1. Change in the amplitude of a rhythm changes the phase of other interconnected rhythms. The grammar of topological treatment of rhythms or time cycles or clocks were never established. Though Winfree suggested the birth of a singularity due to the change in higher phase (page 52, Geometry of biological time), and every point of singularity is a screw axis. Whenever there is a decomposition of “bing” a expansion of the information sphere generates a spiral or helical motion radially outward. Because there is a full rotation of the circle as all system points reset their clock. So, clock reset with external motion is the origin of movement in the time cycle network. This is the origin of helix in nature, if we include Winfree findings (WinFree 1973a) with ours philosophically. This is beautiful to see that every time environment changes something, the effect builds a singularity and that singularity causes all associated clocks to reset and thus, allowing a helical growth. This should be the construction route of a time crystal. It’s mathematics and conceptual provisions are much more profound than Frank’s time crystal.

And we did develop the grammar very extensively, we told that there will be a “bing” at the point of “phase singularity” and these bings, hold geometric information. Winfree’s phase reset study showed that after reset if we plot phase 0 points we get Archimedes spiral. Thus, the development of e, pi and phi with i was inherently evident in Winfree’s analysis. The time crystals if we really want to build, it will be a vortex jelly (page 69, The geometry of time). One could find that this rotation is quantized, thus, quantization is a classical process, as it should be, however, continuously, the new singularities are born and resetting the clocks would happen all over the information network or 3D phase sphere. Of course clock reset is localized, but the domain of localization is redefined every time. Thus, uncertainty and superposition of several ways of resetting the amplitude or clock remain there, giving birth to quantum jelly of time, a true analogue of time

The Winfree’s journey into the concept of black hole and astrophysics leads us to a point (page 69-71, The geometry of time) where we could discuss the correlation between CTC (close time cycle loop and the time crystal). CTC is much closer to what Frank has been arguing (https://www.its.caltech.edu/~kip/scripts/ClosedTimelikeCurves-II121.pdf). CTC has a history of nearly a century (1927 van Stockum first made the solution of Einstein’s field equation, which represents a infinitely long cylinder made of rigidly and rapidly rotating dust). It would really have been wonderful of Frank could adopt his time crystal from CTC not from Winfree’s time ring. Because time ring and time crystal of Winfree survives only when we enter inside the singularity and find another world, so it will become a fractal crystal of time neither classical nor quantum as such.

Franck took everything from Winfree but “singularity”, had he taken that, he would not have to get into a blunder of adventures.

2011-2015 a achievement report of our research

Published October 3, 2016 by anirbanbandyo
  1. Background, purpose

Making an artificial brain is a supreme goal, and this global effort is going on in the full swing. Not only this has become a prime goal for several countries across the globe, all major multinational companies are doing the same with the largest investment of the world. Brain has machines from atomic scale to the meter scale. Therefore, one has to master the technologies that spread from molecular electronics, photonics, design and synthesis of organic materials, computer science, mathematics, physics etc. For example, nano scale machines would carry out important tasks in the future. However, they should have brains providing intelligence to these nano-machines at the atomic scale. We are the first to develop a brain for the nanobots and continuously we are building more and more life-like nano-machines. World’s smallest artificial life was our target.

The fundamental building block of a life form is protein and human brain expresses almost all of the 30000 proteins. For this purpose we need to unravel the mystery of information processing in the biomaterials. Until now, people were considering that protein is like a conventional electronic component found in an electronic shop. But is that true? If not, then what is protein? Now, if protein follows an unprecedented electronics, what is the basic information in biology, in life, and in the brain? If brain is not a circuit, not a machine, not a processor like the conventional computer, then, every single research being done in the world.

 

  1. Results of research: inventing ten research fields

In the five-year period, 2011-2015, we have completed the background research for a new science for bioinformatics and associated electronics and materials science research, both experimentally and theoretically. There are ten research fields that we have created, which did not exist earlier, not even proposed. We have explained the fields in the form of a chart to our right.

By doing research on proteins we found that a new kind of fourth circuit element (we call it Hinductor [1]) that mankind was searching for over 150 years, we have found that device. This is research field number one. This device is used to build fractal cavity resonator which is the fundamental device used by nature for its information processing.

Information in nature is not “bits” or “qubits” its time cycle. So we have developed a new Fractal Information theory (FIT), this is our second research field. For the last 115 years we have been using only one information theory, this is the second [2, 3, 10].

No one writes a software program for nature, it does everything by itself, so an information theory was not enough we had to build a language of nature, using which the biomaterials processes information and there is no need to do programming. We call this third field as geometric musical language (GML) [3,10].

The fundamental physical process that regulates GML is fractal beating, this is a new kind of beating, an advanced form of quantum beating. There are plenty of associated features followed when we discovered this unique process. We introduced Fractal mechanics research field that also delivers all the prerequisites for the FIT and GML combo. A generic form of Quantum mechanics is therefore the fourth research field that we introduced [4, 10].

There are three research fields, which generated from this fourth research field of Fractal mechanics. First, the fractal beating we could encode in the molecular nano brain using which we could build non-chemical physical drugs, we call it musiceuticals. This is the fifth field and we have tested on cancer and Alzheimers [5].

Second, a new kind of chemistry we introduce for fractal reaction kinetics and fractal condensation. Thus, Fractal chemistry is the sixth research field [6].

Third, using GML, Fractal chemistry, FIT, and musiceuticals we have been successful to design brain jelly an organic jelly like solution that mimics the brain rhythms. Brain jelly an advancement of nano brain is our seventh research field [7].

Using the fourth circuit element and the fractal mechanics, we have created a genre of thermal motors. These motors harvest thermal energy and a basic element in the nano brain and brain jelly, we built thermo-electro-mechanical systems (TEMS), this is our eighth research field [8].

Based on FIT, GML and fractal mechanics we have created a fractal cavity resonator model of an entire human brain considering every single component of a human brain. We are building a global platform for the nested rhythms found in the brain. Modeling the vibrations and the rhythms of a human brain is our nineth research field [9].

This brain model shows that a fundamental prime number theory and the mathematics of e, pi, phi and i, regulates evolution of every single new features that we observe in the biomaterials and biophysics research. Therefore in the tenth field we have fused number system and geometry for finding the key evolution of symmetries that nature follows while designing and synthesizing materials [10].

 

  1. The prospects: the follow up commercial products

All the ten research fields that we have introduced have direct connection to industry.

First, fourth circuit element is good for ultra-low power electronics.

Second, fractal information theory is directly related to the data deluge problem that we face.

Third, geometric musical language is to avoid massive programming and the development of natural language; it is for the instantaneous solutions in an unknown situations like outer space missions.

Fourth, fractal mechanics gives us a new kind of piezoelectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties.

Fifth, musiceuticals are drugs that will have no side effects.

Six, fractal chemistry enables 100% conversion in synthesis, minimal side products and natural product synthesis.

Seven, brain jelly as the neural jelly for the futuristic robots.

Eight, TEMS, thermal energy harvesting.

Nine, human brain model for vibrational frequencies and rhythms will help treating various neurodiseases.

Ten, the prime number theory and fusion of basic geometry is formulated to predict unprecedented materials with unique properties.

 

References

1) Helical symmetries observed in proteins: An inductor made of arrayed capacitors (2010) Japanese patent has been issued on 20th August 2015 JP-511630 (world patent filed, this is the invention of fourth circuit element), Satyajit Sahu, Daisuke Fujita, Anirban Bandyopadhyay, US patent has been issued 9019685B2, 28th April 2015.

2) S. Ghosh, D. Fujita & A. Bandyopadhyay; An organic jelly made fractal logic gate with an infinite truth table; Scientific Reports 5, 11265 (2015)

3) S. Ghosh, S. Sahu, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay; Design and operation of a brain like computer: a new class of frequency-fractal computing using wireless communication in a supramolecular organic, inorganic systems. Information, (2014), 5, 28-99;

4) L. Agrawal, et al, Replacing “bits” by “time cycle”: Fractal Information Theory (FIT) and Geometrical musical language (GML) for brain inspired hypercomputing; SocPros 2016, Springer conference proceedings.

5) (a) S. Ghosh, S. Chatterjee, A. Roy, K. Ray, S. Swarnakar, D. Fujita and A. Bandyopadhyay, Resonant Oscillation Language of a Futuristic Nano-Machine-Module: Eliminating Cancer Cells & Alzheimer Aβ Plaques, Curr. Topic. Med. Chem. 15, 534-541 (2015), (b) S. Sahu, H. Oono, S. Ghosh, A. Bandyopadhyay, D. Fujita, F. Peper, T. Isokawa, R. Pati: On Cellular Automata rules of molecular arrays. Natural Computing 11(2): 311-321 (2012).

6) (a) S. Ghosh, M. Dutta, K. Ray, D. Fujita and A. Bandyopadhyay, A simultaneous one pot synthesis of two fractal structures via swapping two fractal reaction kinetic states, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 14772-14775(2016) [cover highlight]; (b) A supramolecular archtecture creation by successive phase transitions and radiations, Subrata Ghosh/Satyajit Sahu/Anirban Bandyopadhyay/Daisuke Fujita, 2014/10/29, JP2014-219958 (this is creation of nano brain)

7) (a) S. Ghosh, M. Dutta, S. Sahu, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Nano Molecular-platform: A protocol to write energy transmission program inside a molecule for bio-inspired supramolecular engineering. Adv. Func. Mater. (2014), 24, 1364-1371; [Cover page] (b) Continuously self-assembling material, Subrata Ghosh/Anirban Bandyopadhyay/Daisuke Fujita,  2014/8/7, JP2014-161746, (this is creation of nano brain)

8) Thermal Noise Driven Molecular Rotor, Subrata Ghosh/Satyajit Sahu/Daisuke Fujita/Anirban Bandyopadhyay, 2014/4/25, JP2014-091141; (this is creation of a motor for nano brain)

9) (a) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Live visualizations of single isolated tubulin protein self-assembly via tunneling current: effect of electromagnetic pumping during spontaneous growth of microtubule. Scientific Reports, 4, 7303 (2014); (b) Ghosh, S. Sahu, and A. Bandyopadhyay Evidence of massive global synchronization and the consciousness. Comment on “Consciousness in the Universe: A Review of the ‘Orch OR’ Theory”. Phys. Life Rev. (2014), 11, 83-84; (c) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, K. Hirata, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Multi-level memory-switching properties of a single brain microtubule. Applied Physics Letters 102, 123701 (2013); (d) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, B. Ghosh, K. Aswani, K. Hirata, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Atomic water channel controlling remarkable properties of a single brain microtubule: Correlating single protein to its supramolecular assembly Biosensors and Bioelectronics 47(2013)141–148, (e) S. Sahu, S. Ghosh, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay Computational myths and mysteries that have grown around microtubule in the last half a century and their possible verification; Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience 8, 1-7 (2011), (cover page)

10) Book chapter related to this article: L. Agrawal, et al; Replacing Turing tape with a Fractal tape: a new information theory, associated mechanics and decision making without computing, Matter and consciousness in Indian epistemology. Chapter 6, 87-159 (2016). Delhi, India.

What is memory in the brain? How many different kinds of memories in the brain?

Published September 22, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Vibrations holds the key, for everything. Until now, we were considering that the vibrations and rhythms are only key to some enzyme cycles. But our proposal is that deep down below even to the molecular scale there are rhythms. And there are 12 types of memories that works at the 12 scales of operations in the brain.

All memories are geometric in nature

1. Periodic memory: Chain of guiter string we see mostly in DNA, proteins, period of periods in the nodes of the string. Edit the memory by changing the periodic length of elementary point oscillators.
2. Spiral of spiral memory, in DNA and proteins, also in microtubules. Edit the memory by changing the twists and the number of hierarchical periods by inducing more and more twists.
3. Vector memory, orientation of helices to make cavities inside protein. 3D orientation makes it a multipolar complex 3D vibrational element. Edit the memory by changing the orientation of column oscillators.
4. Lattice memory, microtubule, actin-beta spectrin network, protein complex. Change the lattice parameters to edit the memory.
5. Chemico-electric memory, chemical transmission cycles. There are nested time cycles highly interconnected, to edit the memory, change the diameter, phase, delay or starting points.
6. Leak density of Cavity memory, ion diffusion holes in the cellular membrane. To edit the memory change the leak density on the cavity surface.
7. Spiral geometric memory, assembly of neurons etc. To edit the memory, change the pitch-diameter-length of the spiral.
8. Vortex or fractal memory, memory stored in the geometric parameters of vortex. A vortex has divergence parameters and scale repeat unit, these two parameters are changed to edit memory.
9.Nodal & polar memory: Nodes in the spinal cord brain network (nodes in a tear drop). Geometry of the shapes are changed among 8 different choices from teardrop to ellipsoid to edit nodes and polarity memory.
10. Electromechanical phase memory: organs sync and desync like a giant molecule. This memory is edited by changing the bond length or wiring length and distribution.
11. Multipolar loop in Phase space loop memory: Hyperspace memory. This memory is non-physical and hence not editable.
12. Phase of phase duality generator memory: hierarchical assembly of reality sphere. This memory is non-physical and hence not editable.

How many different kinds of rhythms are there in our brain?

Published September 22, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Sound is a mechanical rhythm and we have 12 different rhythms in the brain, like

1. Electromagnetic rhythm, [carrier is photon or electromagnetic wave is trapped in a cavity to generate beating or rhythm].
2. Magnetic rhythm, [spiral flow of electrons or ions, they are the carriers editing the magnetic flux, geometry of path forms the periodicity].
3. Electrical potential rhythm, [change in the arrangement of dipoles editing the electric field, fractal distribution of local resonators generate a time function of potential]
4. Solitonic & quasi particle rhythm, [carriers are solitons, defect in the order flows in a ordered structure, the ordered structure is edited to make a loop].
5. Ionic diffusion rhythm, [ions are carriers, tube like cavities are formed in a circular shape or continuous path to generate a loop]
6. Molecular chemical rhythm, [molecules like proteins, enzymes etc are carriers, tube like cavities are formed and sensory systems make sure a circular signalling pathway]
7. Quantum beating, [spin is the carrier, wavefunctions interfere in a squeezed excited photonic, electromagnetic or spin state]
8. Density of states rhythm, [orbitals coupling, wave function modulation, virtual carrier, a virtual continuous loop is made]
9. van-der Waal rhythm, [atomic thermal vibration is looped in a spiral pathway].
10. electro-mechanical rhythm [classical beating with a mechanical beating like tuning fork]
11. Quasi-charge rhythm polaron, polariton [topological fractured band based continuous loops]
12. mechanical rhythm, sound wave [similarly elastic pathways to make a circuit of sound waves].

Just imagine, such beautiful patterns are one of 12 different formations. Their physics is different, application domain and range are different.