All posts in the Uncategorized category

Will unknown remain unknown? Are we making a computer or a user?

Published April 20, 2017 by anirbanbandyo

Often we get confused that we are not making a real computer, but we are making an user. Because we do not have an user after the computer is constructed. The computer runs by itself. But then, who is the original driver? The metric of primes created by us exclusively for the computer, runs the show inside its core hardware. What is a metric? And why a metric would have the power to do remarkable things?

When we work on building a metric, like good old days of astrophysics, we are becoming as religious as Turing machine. In astrophysics, theoreticians used to have a space time metric, while doing complex math, students used to refer to the metric time to time and retrieve all essential data to solve planetary problems.  Similarly for Artificial Intelligence we have introduced a new metric of primes. The idea is to hack nature and make a computer that can generate most patterns that we see in nature, so that unknown is known. How to perfectly build an effective prime metric architecture is to be a matter of investigation for longer time, but, it cannot be ruled out that the concept to use a prime metric as a prime decision maker is a new concept altogether.

The existing information theory is based on the idea of the known. Now, we have introduced a new information theory, FIT, (Fractal Information Theory), wherein we have put tools to bridge two known domains through an unknown path. This is an important change from the era of information theory that was existing for the last century.

What is the trick that I know the unknown? We can do it if we build a universal metric that keeps all possible solutions, just like the space-time metric that is being used for nearly a century with little modifications to discover new and new physical phenomenon that was never known. If we are not surprised how a space time metric discovered in the 1920s is able to provide us new and new discoveries over a century, we should not be surprised that a similar metric for AI. Of course this is not a known culture in AI, but we feel that people would get accustomed with this with our simple DIY (Do it Yourself) kits that we are building now.

Imagine you have two parts of a music, and you have a kit that would combine two parts of the music with a new one in the middle, and that new music would make a sense to your mind. Similar things would be true in handling a large data, it would generate unseen patterns in the big data. The reason we want a DIY kit is that every people in the world could get a free access to the information revolution that we want. This is not about making money, but transforming the way we live in the world of unpredictability, where economics is worse than astrology, virus are transforming themselves in a pattern in which we do not even have any data.

The beauty of our computing is that we get the total picture at once. Then, more the time pass by, more the information arrives, from 50% reliability to 66% reliability to 72% reliability to 76% reliability to… the journey moves on towards 99% reliability, beyond which not possible to achieve. Absolute reliability is a trademark of the existing computers, but for us, “zooming the unknown” as a function of time and more detailed input is the key.

Our product computer would be a toy to change the perspective about this world. Not just playing game, if we are in an unknown territory about which we have absolutely no information, then, our product computer or user can provide a good overview, instantly with 66% success rate. Uncharted territories are increasing everyday with the data explosion. If we humans do not have a technology to estimate what is there in the uncharted territory we cannot do anything. Accidents would create massive havoc to the human society.

  1. Imagine a virus is silently evolving into a dangerous species. Some prime metric hardware is there to perpetually track the development of the virus evolution and perfecting the prediction to monitor its evolution. Thus, it could estimate the terror threat well in advance.
  2. From the Microwave background data of the universe, it could estimate the structure of the universe partially.
  3. From the massive data flow of the internet, it could find patterns of threats, like cyber attack.
  4. It can monitor and predict all possible climate change, where the future predictions are not possible due to complexity.
  5. It can monitor individual health over years and learn about individual health crisis well in advance. Typical heath problems exclusive to a person could be identified and cared.
  6. Economics will become a scientific subject of study as the computer would build predictable models perfecting it over time.
  7. Social science and psychology will become a scientific subject as verifiable predictable models would be there, that could be rejected or accepted by logic.
  8. General science would get a tool to study absolute property of a system, not a fitting model, thus, even scientific studies would get a better cross checker of its conclusions.
  9. Evolution of life could be tracked scientifically, not just in the past, but also the future to be predicted.
  10. Life like machines of the future will come, which would have their own operation life time and after a certain time, they will die just like living systems.



Ten unique features of the brain like computer that we are building

Published February 1, 2017 by anirbanbandyo

We are starting today 1st February 2017 design-construction of the artificial brain. I hope that we will be able to (1) Musiceuticals: cure disease without medicine by applying set of vibrational frequencies, (2) Increased human sense bandwidth: enhance consciousness by increasing the sensing ability of a human, (3) Halt ageing related processes significantly, (4) understanding of the language of nature and every life form, thus, understanding the nature as is and talking to every life form (5) predict intelligence where we cannot find any logic, e.g. earthquake etc, or beyond logic intelligence (6) Science of human behavior, society, economics etc scientifically define human behaviors and several responses which remained thus far, thus, treating brain disorders logically. (7) Simulate beyond limit or knowledge, extrapolation to a domain where no knowledge available. This is a technology that could generate something that it has never encountered, hence we can simulate astrophysics (8) Noise would replace signal, hence we would enter into the era of ultra-low power. (9) Predict and scientifically study evolution (science of evolution). (10) Harmonic technology: Create a culture, art technology that harmonizes with nature, change the way currently every single machine, processed food is an enemy to nature.

Here are the 10 features of the computer that makes it unique in the world. (1) It does not have any software program (no software). (2) It runs by white noise, better randomness in noise is preferred. (3) It uses ultra low power. (4) It runs 24-7 as it evolves its wiring by itself for learning. (5) It never performs a search yet finds what it seeks (no search). (6) It follows geometric-clocking language or principles of composing music to do everything. (7) It has a unified homogeneous fractal hardware for everything, learning changes them. (8) The computer is made of one element only, clocks; considers only parameter phase. (9) It explores singularity and used fractal mechanics, nothing to do with classical or quantum. (10) No wiring a completely wireless connection.


Consciousness is music of the primes

Published November 30, 2016 by anirbanbandyo


SocPros 2016, IEEE conference, Agra, India Dec 2016


The paper describes ten scientific concepts developed by us over a decade, to understand the consciousness.

First concept is the “colony of the immortals“. Universe is a life inside a life inside a life from the end of cosmos to the smallest scale. Each life is a nest of time cycles (clocks), wherein there is a host who lives several orders of time longer than the guests sitting on its perimeter (e.g. neuron lives much longer than other living cells).

Second concept is the “flute of Krishna“, it is a network of flutes, kept side by side and one inside another. Each flute is a fractal cavity resonator, so is the neuron and even proteins, vibrates like a wheel of frequencies.

Third concept is the “bing bang balloon“, here we reject Turing & propose our own fractal tape. In this fractal information theory (FIT) that operates by Geometric Musical Language (GML), wherein entire universe is a self-assembled Bloch spheres. Here, the Bloch sphere of a Qudit includes rhythm to expand perpetually.

Fourth concept is the “tear drop of primes“, the number of tunes that the flute of Krishna noted above could play if plotted against numbers gives the most fundamental symmetry of the universe. As the numbers increase, it repeats the triplet of triplet made of teardrop to ellipsoid.

Fifth, a “chameleon of nested phase”, a fractal network of geometric phase represents everything in the universe, mass, space, time and all fundamental constants. Every single force, symmetry of the universe is regulated by teardrop of primes, but implemented by a chameleon of nested phase.

Sixth concept is the “geometries of continued fractions of Brahman“, in all life forms geometry = nested cycle of continued fractions. Multiple infinite series governing the universe are evolution of geometric shapes.

Seventh is the “repentance of morphing“, a nested time cycle always oscillates to fix into the most feasible diameter, or a defined clock, but it fails due to the continuous expansion of the information architecture or the self-assembled Bloch spheres (bing bang balloon). Thus, an ideal morphing could never be done.

Eighth, “an imaginary life of three infinities: e, pi, phi and i“. These four infinite series set the grammar of dynamics of every single system of the universe, these are fundamental to all.

Nine, “harvesting noise by a magnetic personality“, we have invented a new fourth circuit element Hinductor to mimic a biomaterials vibrations.

Tenth, “hot dance of proteins in its own Raga“; the absorption band of the biomaterials shows how it exploits triplet of triplet band for nested clocks that itself-dances to make a pi. The drive to make a pi is the origin of all rhythms we see in the universe.


Why do we have spirals everywhere in Nature?

Published November 28, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

The largest number of confusing articles we can find in nature regarding the origin of spirals in nature. No one knows why does it happen, and starts “sacred”, magical, hidden secret of the universe. Well, abundance of the spirals does make us amazed, but not enough to feel that it is god’s choice. “We find spirals in the DNA double helix, sunflowers, the path of draining water, weather patterns (including hurricanes), vine tendrils, phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem), galaxies, the horns of various animals, mollusc shells, the nautilus shell, snail shells, whirlpools, ferns and algae”. The reason for the spiral is simple.

There are four numbers e, phi and pi, they are also connected by i, e^2 + phi^2 = pi^2. Therefore if a term increases by unity fraction it is phi, if a number increases as production of fraction it is e, when both of their square increases it twists the angle to a difference plane, try an orthogonal triangle, you would see how 60 degree and 30 degree angles between the triangle would change, when it completes to circularly covered path we got to complete the pi. This is the reason for forming a spiral. Not the equation but the physical significance of e and phi suggests the most simplest form of growth of a material, one is additive and the other is multiplicative. Most of us are unaware of the physical significance of e and phi, a little google search would show that there are plenty of articles which suggest why and how these two series are the simplest route to account for growth.

The identity requires a 3D term to accommodate mismatch, e^2 + phi^2 + z^2 = pi^2. Then we get z= i/e this is also another series with a phase that changes the term. There is a orthogonal phase editing that helps creating a vortex from spiral.

Origin of spiral or vortex is hidden in the physical significance of e and phi, its continued fraction expressions, that brings them into a half circle.

The criminality of Quantum Biology: How Quantum advocates fool us

Published November 4, 2016 by anirbanbandyo
Every single molecule in the entire human brain and the body is a quantum mechanical device. Not just that a giant crystal that we can hold in our hand is a quantum device. The living body is full of quantum devices. A virus is just a crystal of molecules, so it is a quantum device. The point is that every single molecule in the entire world in every living species is a Quantum device, and they all have spins in the entangled state. We do not need to prove this separately. Alas, people are now taking molecules one by one and proving that the molecule is quantum mechanical and then extend the boon of quantum to a biological phenomenon and suggest look the phenomenon is quantum. But the Quantum advocates do it with a trick, they, use their words carefully, to hint it enough and let the journalists do their job.
The gap between the two is enormous, before fooling the scientific community at large, one must understand that one major step is missing. But this is serious. This article I am writing only to warn that these marketing tricks is nothing but criminality, an honest quantum advocate must clearly hint that connecting a biological phenomenon and the quantum effect is far fetched.
So in summary, the advocates of Quantum biology takes a molecule, shows quantum entanglement in the molecular system, and then speculates using their wild imagination that it helps in fundamental biological activity. For example FMO complex in the plant leaves. In the protein complex, there is entanglement, but, how does that helps in photosynthesis? Can it be shown how exactly a chemical reaction is harnessing the entanglement? No. The problem is that no one did this experiment and even without doing this difficult job, they claim that it increases the efficient energy transfer. Because that is so obvious, it is a faith, it is a believe, it is a selling spree.
Science is where we do not use believe or faith we design simple experiments to support our needs. Here our need is a correlation experiment. Where entanglement would continue even implementing the photosynthetic chemical reaction. If we fail to show this, then, definitely, we are just proving FMO is quantum which even if we would not have proved, mattered a bit. On many occasions we could argue that artificial coherent wave originated from the half-silvered glass and a laser source, how does that happen in the biological system? Our research should focus on that point first.
The same applies for our microtubule research also, we have shown it is Quantum, but it proves nothing that brain is a Quantum device, or any information processing in the brain at all happens Quantum mechanically. But wait, we started our work there and looked deep into the system over the years. And we did what the general quantum entanglement research was missing. We found a new structure of information in the microtubule and then also discovered its integration rules, which just, not a perfect Quantum mechanics, but a new form of Quantum mechanics which is much more generic than Quantum mechanics plays the role.
We have not finished our research but trying to find a way out, if there is no Quantum, then, that is fine, but then what is new then? We suggest it is Fractal mechanics, a completely new form of quantum mechanics where you do not do renormalization, but dig deep inside the singularity and harness its features with the fundamental understanding of choices of vibrations. In other words, we follow the geometric pattern of vibrations to map the singularity path and therein lies the route to integrate fractal mechanics, classical mechanics and Quantum mechanics. This mechanics holds some properties of Quantum mechanics and that could easily be integrated over a long distance, and it harness thermal THz radiation, so heat is not an enemy but it is a necessity.
  1. L. Agrawal, K. Ray, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay, Fractal Information Theory (FIT) derived Geometric Musical Language (GML) for brain inspired hypercomputing; Advanced Intelligence System and Computing AISC, Procedings of Soft computing conference SocPros 2016, Springer.
  2. L. Agrawal, S. Ghosh, B. Ghosh, K. Ray, S. Sahu, D. Fujita, A Bandyopadhyay; Replacing Turing tape with a Fractal tape: a new information theory, associated mechanics and decision making without computing, Consciousness: Integrating Indian and Western perspective. Chapter 6, 87-159 (2016). Delhi, India.

Subtractive manufacturing, additive manufacturing and then fractal manufacturing

Published October 24, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Last 100 years we have seen that engineers used to cut tools into pieces and then connect them together to make a nice products. It was subtractive engineering. Making a hole, cutting it into a geometric shape, pasting, what a culture it was for the manufacturing. Now, we are having additive manufacturing in terms of 3D printing. This kind of additive manufacturing will change the world, we will be making things that would initiate adding liquids, jelly, and create just everything.

There are several limitations of subtractive engineering. We often make the machines bigger, we need smaller tools to make a smaller products. Often it was energy consuming and waste of materials was enormous. Now with the additive engineering, we create machines taking exactly what we need. We do not need to cut things. Of course we will see 3D printing to take over and destroy entire system, economy and everything in the world. A new world order will be set and we will have to face loss of jobs in a huge number.

Then there were two more classes of manufacturing waiting in the lab desk, self-assembly and fractal condensation. Self-assembly was proposed in 1988 and fractal reaction kinetics and related condensation was proposed by us in 2016. Self-assembly is found to be limited because it requires materials in a particular form and elementary structure to proceed. While fractal condensation is a brilliant way of putting it, whenever “fractal” word includes in the formation of any structure, self-assembly from a nucleus by core shell growth and then self-assembly of several such nucleus run simultaneously.

Until now the grammar of fractal manufacturing noted above is not established, but, one could use number system and the pattern of primes to regulate the growth process. If a manufacturing follows the pattern of primes, it will never be left alone, no need to program and self-healing would be fundamental to it. For self-healing “fractal” is always the best choice.


Fractal time crystals and quantum time crystals: Why Frank’s adventure to advance Winfree failed?

Published October 7, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

“I am fumbled to an interest in maps among rings, and products of rings….the ring idea constitutes the skeleton, the bare bones….. only one variable the phase, only one observable, the phase…….singularities happen only in models not in the real world”. A Winfree 1977

“Singularity is almost invariably a clue”. Sherlock Holmes

“Information of the universe is not written in the “bing” but in the silence between the “bings””.

We all know about the crystal of matter, however, we all got excited to hear that matter could also form a crystal. Frank took the term “time crystal” in his 2012 PRL paper, used by A Winfree way back in 1977 (The geometry of biological time, Second edition 2003, just after his death in 2002). He even used the same phrase “ring device” taken from Winfree, and used the concept of “tick” (page 79, GBT) to edit this “ring device” to generate spontaneously a new “ring device” or a new clock. When we read the book by Winfree, it appears as if Frank was largely inspired by that book and copied everything therein. Winfree argued that (p 79) if a neuron is kept under a constant bias or kept in a calcium deficient solution, it fires spontaneously and rhythmically (Guttman et al 1979). Thus, spontaneous rhythms are born with a “tick”.

Winfree talked about material crystals that make life, like virus. To him, life is a time cycle and crystals of time cycles or rhythms is a life, every single event of life, like birth and death of a living cell, ovulation, everything is like a ring, it returns to the initial state. Mitosis cycle is considered to be a simple clock (Campbell 1964, GBT) Surprisingly we also believe in that. Nature makes time crystals and the materials take the form so that it can sing the music properly in the most feasible way. Frank wanted to provide a more concrete physical presentation of the Winfree’s work, but failed miserably. Nesting of clocks are more important and Frank did not get it at all from Winfree’s work, because nesting was largely missing. A vivid copy of Winfree’s work is found in Brain Rhythm book by G. Buzsaki, but, he merely tried to establish the very old Winfree’s concept with more examples. Nested rhythms came many times, but, a proper mathematical structure of nesting was never born. Our contribution is exactly there. We took “phase singularity” suggested by Winfree and used that as a generic tool to integrate information and proposed a new information theory which rejects the existing Integrated Information Theory (IIT) proposed by Coch and others.

Say, a pendulum is oscillating periodically, Frank Wilczek will call it a time crystal, because time is fixed like atoms are fixed in a crystal, of course it can have a classical and a quantum version. The similarity between Winfree’s proposal and Frank’s argument is enormous. Winfree talked rigorously about the dynamics in the ring, so did Frank, but Winfree said explicitly that this ring may not be a real ring and he emphasized that repeatedly, while Frank wanted to see it in real system as a pendulum. If the diameter of its time cycle changes i.e. pendulum moves a shorter distance, then, they will call it a spontaneous time symmetry breaking. Now, why the pendulum will change its oscillation diameter, if there is no friction. Spontaneous property of the system, so they call it, spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The point is that changing the diameter of a circle is fine, but when the proposal comes that all materials making the ring or the time cycle need to be frozen in the ground state and at the same time moving, this is utter nonsense. This is like considering that a particle is moving and stopping at the same time. Frank suggested that in superconducting ring put a thrust to the ionic motions and they will rotate in a circular path, then, in the ground state (even after thrust they remain in the ground state, nonsense!) they will change the rotation speed characteristically. So, we can say, that time symmetry is breaking!

If we consider the ring as a cavity resonator, then what happens in a cavity resonator we all know, we will get a fundamental frequency and then its harmonics, obviously, shall we say that in every single cavity resonator in the universe time symmetry is spontaneously broken? No, we cannot say that kind of nonsense, because spontaneous birth of a clock or spontaneous symmetry breaking is driven by a human choice, or free will. We are externally applying a force or an energy, then use of the word “spontaneous” is a crime. This is “induced”. Monroe et al has claimed (ArXiv first experimental evidence of time crystal) that they have experimentally realized time crystal in a superconducting ring, however, by that logic every single guitar string is a time crystal. Because the time profile would look similar and “melting of the crystal”, is a mere imagination

The mistake made by Frank was that he did not consider “phase singularity” suggested by A Winfree. He have gone into extensive details to prove that there truly exists a “phase singularity”, his list is rich in examples, and he himself did several experiments to establish that. Actually, phase singularity concept was introduced by Brady 1975 (p81) Moreover, he came up with several observations which could change the way we topologically represent the rhythms. Phase reset, amplitude reset are two examples that one must take into consideration. He never put these parameters into a mathematical perspective. However, he did suggest that there is a self-similarity in phase integration. Phi = Phi + 1. Change in the amplitude of a rhythm changes the phase of other interconnected rhythms. The grammar of topological treatment of rhythms or time cycles or clocks were never established. Though Winfree suggested the birth of a singularity due to the change in higher phase (page 52, Geometry of biological time), and every point of singularity is a screw axis. Whenever there is a decomposition of “bing” a expansion of the information sphere generates a spiral or helical motion radially outward. Because there is a full rotation of the circle as all system points reset their clock. So, clock reset with external motion is the origin of movement in the time cycle network. This is the origin of helix in nature, if we include Winfree findings (WinFree 1973a) with ours philosophically. This is beautiful to see that every time environment changes something, the effect builds a singularity and that singularity causes all associated clocks to reset and thus, allowing a helical growth. This should be the construction route of a time crystal. It’s mathematics and conceptual provisions are much more profound than Frank’s time crystal.

And we did develop the grammar very extensively, we told that there will be a “bing” at the point of “phase singularity” and these bings, hold geometric information. Winfree’s phase reset study showed that after reset if we plot phase 0 points we get Archimedes spiral. Thus, the development of e, pi and phi with i was inherently evident in Winfree’s analysis. The time crystals if we really want to build, it will be a vortex jelly (page 69, The geometry of time). One could find that this rotation is quantized, thus, quantization is a classical process, as it should be, however, continuously, the new singularities are born and resetting the clocks would happen all over the information network or 3D phase sphere. Of course clock reset is localized, but the domain of localization is redefined every time. Thus, uncertainty and superposition of several ways of resetting the amplitude or clock remain there, giving birth to quantum jelly of time, a true analogue of time

The Winfree’s journey into the concept of black hole and astrophysics leads us to a point (page 69-71, The geometry of time) where we could discuss the correlation between CTC (close time cycle loop and the time crystal). CTC is much closer to what Frank has been arguing (https://www.its.caltech.edu/~kip/scripts/ClosedTimelikeCurves-II121.pdf). CTC has a history of nearly a century (1927 van Stockum first made the solution of Einstein’s field equation, which represents a infinitely long cylinder made of rigidly and rapidly rotating dust). It would really have been wonderful of Frank could adopt his time crystal from CTC not from Winfree’s time ring. Because time ring and time crystal of Winfree survives only when we enter inside the singularity and find another world, so it will become a fractal crystal of time neither classical nor quantum as such.

Franck took everything from Winfree but “singularity”, had he taken that, he would not have to get into a blunder of adventures.