The architecture of confusion: How ancient Hindu schools went beyond the culture of arguments?

This article is a tutorial for the book Nanobrain: The making of an artificial brain made of a time crystal.

One of the primary concepts discussed in the book is going beyond Turing philosophy where inherently it is considered that every single event that happens in the universe or would happen in the universe could be re-written in terms of a sequence of identical events. We suggest that this very basic principle is wrong. Events in the universe grow within and above and events are made of confusions as the corners of geometric shapes. Each corner is a “confusion” and holds another geometric shape inside. This very idea is not new. Hindu schools of knowledge have practiced this methodology of making a decision for 3000 years. The idea is that we start from one confusion and then continue our journey until we reach facts. The architecture of confusion is the solution to the problem.

Hindus used to write knowledge in terms of Sutras. There were four rules to write a sutra. 1. Use the minimum number of words (Alpakshara). 2. Meaning must not generate any doubt (Asandigdha). 3. Contain the essence of the subject (Saravat). 4. Reflect all aspects of the subject, all connected routes are revealed (Bibhatomukha).

Expanding a query following symmetries of the universe: Classify confusions into two categories: Crazy nesting of universes by Hindus for 3000 years.

We will discuss here what Hindu philosophers said about finding confusion. There are two types of the confusion described in Hinduism. First, a set of confusions that could be linked in a time loop, as they arise sequentially and logically circular. Second temporal loops of confusions arise one inside another. We find them as the confusion that is made of elementary confusions and all confusion in the loop are elementary or constituent confusion of another confusion above. These two classes of confusion are naturally derived when we expand a query following universal symmetries of the universe as suggested by Maharshi Kapil in his Sankhya Darshan. “Contexts and contents are naturally created in the universe to regenerate the symmetry”. Creating confusion inside a confusion follows one of the most fundamental principles of Hinduism, whatever you see there must be something similar group them in a time loop and take many such loops to create a network of universes within and above. The Hindu religious scholars were so crazy for 3000 years that whatever they saw, they applied the same protocol. They took universes or How to find the right confusion and how do we pass through different layers of confusion by traveling through different imaginary worlds.

Time in Hinduism: The concept of Rita and Anahata, Abraham, pranava

Before we discuss confusion, we talk about time in Hinduism. Unlike Abrahamism, Hindu concept of time is cyclic. The smallest time or the shortest time cycle is called “Rita”, Rita is the physical order of the universe (universal order, rity and ritual derived from here, 390 times in Rik veda), Rita is inherent in every aspect of creation, because it is the reason for periodicity of the universe. Every single event in the universe is periodic in different time scales, Rita self-assembles to form clocks even for gods. Clocks for every single periodic event is distinct and one periodic event can not see the clock of others. Like human has a clock, but with that clock it cannot sense the planetory clock, and gods have its own clock, but humans cannot sense the clock of God. Larger the consciousness slower is the smallest time unit of a systemic clock. Brahman is supersensual or beyond sensed, its anahata or unstruck always, once it is sensed it cannot be sensed by any one else (“no one can taste an already tasted Brahman”–Ramakrishna), it is felt as Pranava (Om), the smallest time cycle that Rita builds as the fundamental temporal unit of the universe.

A time cycle is complete in itself, its isolated so the weakness of the cyclic time is that it cannot interact. So the Hindu scholars devised an idea they said that until a time cycle reaches Samadhi or complete synchronization with tat, each time-cycle projects three components, srishti, sthithi and lays to another time cycle (“Kalo gatinivrtti sthiti: samdadhati” (Sankhayana Aranyaka 7.20)). So, they demanded duality or coexistence of two time cycles for time to flow. At Samadhi obviously time does not flow.

Shiva is Maha-kala (the great time cycle) his wife carries the energy of the great time cycle it is called Kali. Surya Sidhanta suggests that time or Kala in Hinduism has both, a real part (murta) and an imaginary part (amurta, imaginary time that cannot be sensed).

Sage Ganita and other scholars maintained the categorization of time as if the cycle of a smaller time scale becomes a pixel of a higher time scale. Sage Ganita was so courageous he actually told times from microseconds to 10^22 seconds, in the form of universe inside a universe. This principle of connecting clocks could be found in many instances. The stories were there where great sages and scholars used to visit different worlds where the unit of time used to be very different. Hindu Purunas contains several narrative accounts in which celestial events span over longer durations of time. Hindus divided time from 10^22 seconds (cycle of brahma) to a few microseconds (truth). Most interestingly paramanu is the unit of time using which the universe is made. Ajivikas used to believe that paramanu holds all primary cosmic properties and it combines to make everything, all properties emerge from within.

In Budhdhism and Jainism, time does not remain cyclic because they add an additional condition that until the subject that experiences time changes till then time exists. So there is a beginning and end of time. In Hinduism it does not. Though Budhdhists adopted Kalchakra or time cycle from Hinduism, in its implementation contradictions are abundant.

A summary of six philosophical schools of Hinduism, seven Shastra of decision making, sixteen padarthas implemented as steps of learning

Hindu philosophy has six majors survived till date (Nyaya Akshapada Gautama, VaisheshikaSamkhyaYogaMīmāṃsā), 18 puranas.

Seven Shastra was there discussing decision making. Anvisiki (quest for knowing), it is a shastra that outlines the rules for a proper quest. Hetu shastra is the science of finding the causes or reasons, methods to follow to find origin. Pramana Shastra, is the knowledge of establishing proof or evidence. Tattva shastra is the study of rules for compositions of logic or arguments. Tarka Vidya is the study of framing arguments. Vadartha is the science of finding a meaning that is complete or defining a term with intricate details. Phakika shastra is all about framing deliberately deceiving arguments (Sophism). Nyaya shastra is providing justice to human perception following proper methods.

Gautama has been mentioned in Skanda Purana

Sixteen padartha or elements of doing justice to decision making is outlined by Maharshi Gautama

pramana -prameya-samasaya-prayojana-dristanta-siddhanta-avayava-tarka-nirnayavada-
jalpa-vitanc/a-hetvabhasa-chala-jati-nigrahasthana, — Nyaya-sutra -11.1.

  1. Pramana–how to establish a proof. 2. Prameya—–that of which a correct notion should be formed. 3. Samasya–how to find a problem. 4. Prayojana— How to underpin the necessity of a problem and the necessity of its content. 5. Dristanta-example

Perfection is attained by the correct knowledge about true nature of sixteen categories: means of right knowledge (pramāṇa); object of right knowledge (prameya); doubt (samsaya); purpose (prayojana); familiar instance (dṛṣṭānta); established tenet (siddhānta); members of an inference (avayava); reasoning (tarka); ascertainment or results (nirṇaya); discussion (vāda); sophistic disputations (jalpa); cavil (vitaṇḍa); fallacies (hetvābhāsa); quibbles (chala); futile rejoinders (jāti); and methods of losing an argument (nigrahasthāna).

— Nyayasutra, 1.1.1[17][25][26]

Loka or nested universe concept: Triplet of universes are abundant in the 18 Puranas.

Often we find in the Puranas that God takes humans to the Sukshmaloka where time flows extremely fast and then to Brahmaloka where time flows extremely slowly. Puranas are mythological stories designed to teach foundations of Hinduism to masses. The stories tell that journey to these worlds are impossible since the largest unit of time of Sukshmaloka is the smallest unit of time of martaloka and largest time possible in martaloka is smaller than the smallest unit of time of Brahmaloka. It is not limited to triplet of universes. This concept of division of lokas which are separate universes is mathematically sound and exactly similar to the concept of nested universes we have adopted in the brain like computer we are building. In Chapter 2 of the book Nanobrain we have noted clearly that journey to different universes are not allowed. However, in Chapter 4 of the book Nanobrain we have outlined that there is a possible route of communication if we consider that 12 such nested universes or lokas work together following the dodecanion algebra.

Nested universe (one inside another) and its axioms were defined in Chhandogyo Upanishad. Here is a sloka that defines the barriers of different universes and when we make decision, how reasons hide inside another reason, and very directly it is noted that a reason originates from subtler forms and converges to a more generic reason. No reason has a separate identity. Here is the sloka

Tasya kva mulam syad anyatra adbhyah, adbhih, saumya, sungena tejo mulam anviccha, tejasa, saumya sungena sanmulam anviccha san mulah saumya imah sarvah prajah sadayatanah, satpratishtha yatha nu khalu, saumya imas-tisro devatah purusam prapya trivrt-trivrdekaika bhavati, tad-uktam purastad-eva bhavati, asya saumya purusasya prayato vang manasi sampadyate, manah prane pranas-tejasi, tejah parasyam devatayam.

The explanation below for the above sloka is copied from  Chhandogyo Upanishad
What is the ultimate cause? The cause ultimate can only be that which is not absorbed into a higher cause. The absorption process ceases when the ultimate cause is reached. The grosser forms get absorbed into the subtler ones, and the subtler ones reach the causal state, the so-called ultimate cause from the empirical point of view. This ultimate cause dissolves in the Absolute. There, everything comes to a cessation. The individuality gets dissolved, as it were. It gets tuned up to the ultimate Reality. Sat, pure Being. It is the origin of all things from which the multiplicity appears to proceed through the instrumentality of this triplicated structure of the universe, Everything, ultimately, is rooted in Being. This is what Uddalaka makes out.
San-mulam anviccha: If we find out and discover the cause of everything in pure Being, we will not find the ultimate cause of anything in any other thing, except in that Being, pure and simple, in which the effects are rooted in an undistinguishable manner. Imah sarvah prajah sadayatanah: All this variety of creation is rooted in Being which is incapable of further absorption into any higher cause, because nothing can be greater than Being. Everything is an effect of It. Everything is an expression of It, but It Itself is not an expression of anything else. The generality of existence that is behind the particularity of objects is what is called Sat or Satta. Sometimes, it is known as Satta samanya, general Being in all created objects which is their essence. Every particular can be resolved into this causeless cause. Just as the varieties of furniture can be resolved into the cause which is the wood, so is the case with any other manufactured object. There is a tendency of every effect to return into its cause. This is what we call the evolutionary process. It is impossible for the effect to rest in itself, because of the pull exerted by the cause. This pull is invisibly felt and inexorably exercised universally everywhere, in all creation, in respect of every object whatever it may be, organic or inorganic. And so nothing can have any peace in this world. Everything is restless, everything moves, everything is tense and everything has an objective transcending itself. That is why there is such endless activity going on in the world, in every field of life. Everything tries to overcome its own limitations and to entertain higher and higher objectives, until it reaches the pure Being. The very aspiration to become something else, 135
to transcend one’s self, to become better and to move towards something greater, is because of the limitedness, the finitude of things. This itself is a pointer to the existence of a cause beyond themselves. If there is no cause beyond an effect, there would be no motion of the effect towards something else, and there will be no feeling of finitude. There would be no aspiration, no desire whatsoever, and no activity at all.
So, this is the philosophical background to which our mind is driven through the analogical explanations of Sage Uddalaka, when he says that the earth element goes back into the water element, the water element into the fire element, and the fire element into that pure Being, the causeless cause of all things. Sarvah prajah sadayatanah: Everything is having Being as its abode and everything is rooted in Being. Everything is established in It, as the branches of a tree are supported by the trunk and are dependent on it. The trunk again is dependent on the root, and the root on the seed which contains all this variety. The magnificent expanse of the tree is hidden in that little insignificant thing which we call the seed. We have already explained how the three elements get mixed up in certain proportions called trivritkarana and come to constitute both the objective universe as well as the subjective body of an individual.
Now this subtlety of things, this essence of things, this background of all objects and this invisible Cause that is transcendent and is behind all the variety of particulars, is the Self of all beings. This is the Atman of all things and everything in this world has this as its Self. Everything is 136
moving towards the Self of itself. Where do we move? We move towards our Self. We do not move towards something else, some other object. So, even the so-called evolution is not a movement towards something else. It is a movement towards the very Self of that which is moving.
The whole difficulty is to locate where that Self is. Is It inside or outside, is It in me or in you, or is It somewhere else? This is a point which will be discussed in the next chapter of this Upanishad. This movement of the world and the tendency of things to move, the whole process of the absorption of the effect into the cause, is ultimately an indication that everything is pulled by the Self towards Itself. The subtlest of all things is the Being, pure and simple, and this Being which we call Sat is also the Atman of all things. There is a hint given here as to where the Self is, though it is not pointedly explained as to where It is. You have already been told as to where Being is, and now the Being is identified with the Atman, the Self. So naturally where Being is, there Self also has to be. And we have already said that the Sat, the pure Being, is the Sattasamanya, and therefore, it must be everywhere. So the Self is everywhere. Now, where is it that you are going when you are pulled by the Self towards Itself? What is it that pulls you, which object? Everything pulls you from every side. So it is not an entry of one thing into another thing, not even of the individual into the cosmic. It is not anything internal in an empirical sense, internal in the sense of something being inside another thing physically. It is a metaphysical internality, a spiritual internality, inconceivable by the mind.

It cannot be calculated in a 137
mathematical way as if something is contained in something else; not at all. It is the Self of all things in a novel manner, impossible to describe in words, and it is this universal Selfhood which is the cause of all things and towards which everything is moving.


Sangeetaratnakara by Sarangadeva


  1. samana-aneka-dharma-upapatteh vipratipatteh upalabdhi-anupalabdhi-avya-vasthatah cha visesa-apeksah vimarsah samsayah, — Nyaya-sutra – 1.1.23. Meaning: A confusion is specially conflicting (vimarshaha) expectations of multiple coexisting properties (samana-aneka-dharma), when foliated from within (viprati-patteha), and when foliated from above (upa-patteha), (patteha = foliated = unfolding like onion leaves), wherein some expectations are perceptive, some non-perceptive (upalabdhi). Maharshi Gautama 600BC.

Life inside a life inside a life…. an infinite network

Here exfoliation like onion is used. But Hindu monks used to use exfoliation largely. Yogavashistha Maharamayana describes an interaction between Goddess Saraswati and a devotee Leela.

सर्गे सर्गे पृथग्रुपं सर्गान्तराण्यपि | तेष्पन्सन्तः स्थसर्गोधाः कदलीदल पीठवत् || श्लोक

आकाशे परमाण्वन्तर्द्र व्यादेरगुकेअपि च | जीवाणुर्यत्र तत्रेदं जगद्वेत्ति निजं वपुः|| श्लोक

Just as the various layers of banana stem are placed one below the other, similarly each creation is sequenced systematically. The sequence of many creations exist within one, just as the world of dream exists in every atom of consciousness pervading the world. Similarly in the world there are many kinds of creatures and their world exists within the infinite atoms of infinite matter.

Visiting subtle life forms and learn the truth came in Hindu scriptures many times. In those universes unit of time used to be different. Maharishi Vashistha explains the journey of life according to the infinite desires of the mind, that time and space is relative and the existential realities of consciousness and the deep mysteries of life and science.

Eight classes of confusions by Maharshi Gautama: How not to find facts? 

Gautama documented eight classes of confusion in the first sutra of nyaya sutra.

  1. The perceived or sensed properties of a subject or concept could have a mixture of two independent subjects or concepts. The observer or thinker is very well versed about the independent subjects, that is why the doubt or confusion is born.

2 ekasmin dharmini viruddha nana dharma-vaisita-vagahi-gyanam samsayah, yatha sthanuh va purusah vaiti, — Tarkasamgraha Dipika: Annambhatta, [Eng. trans.] by Gopinath Bhattacharya, Progressive Publisher, Calcutta, Second Revised Edition, 1983, Verse No 71.

There were Five ways of framing an argument. However, there were not much protocol for constructing a confusion, hence the debate continued.

The text, in nyaya sutras 1.1.32 and 1.1.39, presents its theory of proper arguments, stating that a proper argument must include five components:

  1. pratijna – the proposition or hypothesis (that which needs to be proved or decided)
  2. hetu – the reason (can be positive or negative)
  3. udaharana – the general rule (that which is independently confirmed or confirmable)
  4. upanaya – the application of the rule (validity test, or example to the instance)
  5. nigamana – the conclusion (the hypothesis is either true or false or in doubt)

The text defines and aphoristically discusses each of these.

The Nyayasutras define and discuss Samsaya (Sanskrit: संशय, doubt) in sutras 1.1.23, 2.1.1 to 2.1.7, 3.2.1, 4.2.4 among others. This discussion is similar to those found in other schools of Hindu philosophy, expands on the theory of doubt presented by Kanada in the Vaisheshika school, but disagrees with the Charvaka school’s theory of doubt and consequent “there is no empirical knowledge ever”.

How nanobrain uses above knowledge and differs?

PPM and GML suggests building the architecture of confusion and change it following the symmetries of primes. When pathways change and that lead to different projection to plane of facts, a very different kind of solutions is created. However keeping in mind of Satta raja and tamah. In one case we choose confusions that bonds two distinct topologies (tamas, T), in second case we choose confusions that transforms one geometry to another (rajas, R) and third we choose confusions that creates infinite series from the interaction of any two geometric shapes (satva, S). Thus, three PPMs combine and one of the PPMs dominate and combine all geometric shapes. Contribution of S R and T changes. We find the solution of the problem.

Commentary on the relative positioning of PPM and GML with respect to the understanding of Hindu schools.

GML is the language of the universe. Patangali Yogasutra suggests that if you want to invent the language of the universe, isolate word,

sabdârtha-pratyayânâm itaretarâdhyâsât sankarah tat-pravibhâga-saäyamât sarva-bhûta-ruta-Gyânam
sabda = verbal, linguistic; artha = meaning, purpose, approach; pratyayânâm = perception, thought, intention, representation; itaretara = one another; adhyâsât = superimposition; sankarah = confusion, mixing up; tad = that, these; pravibhâga = distinction; saäyamât = constraint, perfect discipline; sarva = all; bhûta = element, being; ruta = language, sound; Gyânam = knowledge;

Word, meaning, and perception tend to get lumped together, each confused with the others; focusing on the distinctions between them with perfect discipline yields insight into the language of all beings. GML distincts topology of a time crystal its projections to all directions or literal meaning and finally using PPM one could determine the perception embedded in the time crystal. Therefore, three parts are separated.

Phase prime metric, PPM proposed by us is closer to the Ājīvika school (Makkhali Gosala) that is known for its Niyati (“Fate“) doctrine of absolute determinism. Qualities emerged from aggregates of atoms, but the aggregation and nature of these atoms was predetermined by cosmic forces (Basham, A.L. (1951). History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas (2nd ed.). Delhi, India: Moltilal Banarsidass (Reprint: 2002). ISBN 81-208-1204-2.). If there are differences, I would point them out, who knows PPM and GML is in some sort advancement of the old schools, a comparative review is essential.

The role of primes in Hindu music and role geometric shapes in Hindu Mudhra and dance:

Saam Veda is the world’s original literary authority on the 7 musical-notes, the 7 Swars: 1.Madhyam, 2.Gaddhar, 3.Rishabh, 4.Shadja, 5.Nishad, 6.Dhaivata, 7.Pancham. Then there are 7 main Syllabic Metres: 1.Gayatri 8×3=24, 2.Ushnik 7×4=28, 3.Anushtup 8×4=32, 4.Brihati 9×4=36, 5.Pankti 10×4=40, 6.Trishtup 11×4=44, 7.Jagati 12×4=48. These metres were the original Raag systems and of course they developed further and across the world but the above fundamentals of Saam Veda remain eternal Sanaatan.

I.24 Patanjali Yogasutra
klesa-karma-vipâkâsayair aparâmëæøaï puruæa-viåeæa îåvaraï
kleåa = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison; karma = action
vipâka = ripening, fruition; âåayaiï = store, residuum; aparâmëæøaï = untouched, unaffected; puruæa = pure awareness; viåeæa = difference, distinction; exemplary, distinct; îåvaraï = divine ideal of pure awareness
Isvara is a distinct, incorruptible form of pure awareness, utterly independent of cause and effect, and lacking any store of latent impressions.

1.41 Patanjali Yogasutra

kshîña-vritter abhijâtasye-eba mañer grahîtr-grahaña-grâhyesu tat-stha-tad-anjanatâ samâpattiha
kæîña = dwindled, decreased; vëtteï = patterning, turnings, movements; abhijâtasya = faultless, transparent; iva = like; mañera = jewel; grahîtr = one who grasps, perceived; grahaña = grasping, perceiving; grâhyesu = grasped, object of perception
tad = that; stha = abide; tad = that; anjanatâ = saturation, taking the form of something else; samâpattih = coalescence, unified contemplation
As the patterning of consciousness subsides, a transparent way of seeing, called coalescence, saturates consciousness; like a jewel, it reflects equally whatever lies before it – whether subject, object, or act of perceiving.

Thus, consciousness condenses many different patterns into another new form of pattern which is so transparent like a jewel, that it reflects subject, object and perception all around.







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