Information Theory

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What is memory in the brain? How many different kinds of memories in the brain?

Published September 22, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Vibrations holds the key, for everything. Until now, we were considering that the vibrations and rhythms are only key to some enzyme cycles. But our proposal is that deep down below even to the molecular scale there are rhythms. And there are 12 types of memories that works at the 12 scales of operations in the brain.

All memories are geometric in nature

1. Periodic memory: Chain of guiter string we see mostly in DNA, proteins, period of periods in the nodes of the string. Edit the memory by changing the periodic length of elementary point oscillators.
2. Spiral of spiral memory, in DNA and proteins, also in microtubules. Edit the memory by changing the twists and the number of hierarchical periods by inducing more and more twists.
3. Vector memory, orientation of helices to make cavities inside protein. 3D orientation makes it a multipolar complex 3D vibrational element. Edit the memory by changing the orientation of column oscillators.
4. Lattice memory, microtubule, actin-beta spectrin network, protein complex. Change the lattice parameters to edit the memory.
5. Chemico-electric memory, chemical transmission cycles. There are nested time cycles highly interconnected, to edit the memory, change the diameter, phase, delay or starting points.
6. Leak density of Cavity memory, ion diffusion holes in the cellular membrane. To edit the memory change the leak density on the cavity surface.
7. Spiral geometric memory, assembly of neurons etc. To edit the memory, change the pitch-diameter-length of the spiral.
8. Vortex or fractal memory, memory stored in the geometric parameters of vortex. A vortex has divergence parameters and scale repeat unit, these two parameters are changed to edit memory.
9.Nodal & polar memory: Nodes in the spinal cord brain network (nodes in a tear drop). Geometry of the shapes are changed among 8 different choices from teardrop to ellipsoid to edit nodes and polarity memory.
10. Electromechanical phase memory: organs sync and desync like a giant molecule. This memory is edited by changing the bond length or wiring length and distribution.
11. Multipolar loop in Phase space loop memory: Hyperspace memory. This memory is non-physical and hence not editable.
12. Phase of phase duality generator memory: hierarchical assembly of reality sphere. This memory is non-physical and hence not editable.

How many different kinds of rhythms are there in our brain?

Published September 22, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Sound is a mechanical rhythm and we have 12 different rhythms in the brain, like

1. Electromagnetic rhythm, [carrier is photon or electromagnetic wave is trapped in a cavity to generate beating or rhythm].
2. Magnetic rhythm, [spiral flow of electrons or ions, they are the carriers editing the magnetic flux, geometry of path forms the periodicity].
3. Electrical potential rhythm, [change in the arrangement of dipoles editing the electric field, fractal distribution of local resonators generate a time function of potential]
4. Solitonic & quasi particle rhythm, [carriers are solitons, defect in the order flows in a ordered structure, the ordered structure is edited to make a loop].
5. Ionic diffusion rhythm, [ions are carriers, tube like cavities are formed in a circular shape or continuous path to generate a loop]
6. Molecular chemical rhythm, [molecules like proteins, enzymes etc are carriers, tube like cavities are formed and sensory systems make sure a circular signalling pathway]
7. Quantum beating, [spin is the carrier, wavefunctions interfere in a squeezed excited photonic, electromagnetic or spin state]
8. Density of states rhythm, [orbitals coupling, wave function modulation, virtual carrier, a virtual continuous loop is made]
9. van-der Waal rhythm, [atomic thermal vibration is looped in a spiral pathway].
10. electro-mechanical rhythm [classical beating with a mechanical beating like tuning fork]
11. Quasi-charge rhythm polaron, polariton [topological fractured band based continuous loops]
12. mechanical rhythm, sound wave [similarly elastic pathways to make a circuit of sound waves].

Just imagine, such beautiful patterns are one of 12 different formations. Their physics is different, application domain and range are different.

Ten inventions that we contributed from NIMS, Japan and would consolidate in the next 10 years (2016-2026)

Published September 11, 2016 by anirbanbandyo
  1. Information Theory:          A new information theory. FIT or Fractal Information Theory. This is a new way of computing or decision-making by fractal logic gate, or fractal cavity resonator. For this purpose we proposed Fractal tape like Turing tape and Fractom machine. We often use nested cycle metric to generate fundamental geometric constants.
  2. Mechanics:           We have been developing a new generic version of quantum mechanics, FM or Fractal Mechanics, We conceptualized a new fractal harmonic oscillator alternative to QFT
  3. Language:         We have been developing a new geometric musical language (GML) and constructed Continued Fraction Geometric Alzebra (CFGA) and Geometric musical calculator (GMC).
  4. Human brain model:          We develop fractal cavity resonator model of the human brain, (FCR-Brain) and Frequency Wheel of prime model (FWPM) for any biological machine. We develop cavity math for protein design for life forms. Nested Rhythm map of the Human brain (NRM-Brain). We discovered ferroelectric, piezoelectric & pyroelectric properties of microtubule and every protein, we have also discovered that protein has electromagnetic resonance, Universal protein circuit model (UPCM).
  5. Geometric number system theory:             We construct and information version for developing the theory of everything, and a theory of consciousness we call it Time cycle universe theory (TCU), this is not like GUT, ours is a set of integrated mathematical constructs and protocols that would help in the understanding the universe and or consciousness. For example relating e, pi, phi with all fundamental constants, frequency wheel of primes, ordered factor etc.
  6. Fourth circuit element:            We invent fourth circuit element, Hinductor
  7. Thermal energy harvesting machines:           We invent artificial life forms, kT driven thermal nanobots, Thermo Electro mechanical system (TEMS).
  8. Musiceutical nanobots:            We have developed musiceuticals, vibration based medicines, Nano Brain. Main focused diseases have been cancer and alzheimers.
  9. Fractal chemical kinetics and condensation:          We have developed a new kind of multi-kinetic synthesis, we invent a new class of condensation beyond Froelich condensation, Fractal condensation
  10. Brain jelly:             We invented organic jelly that replicates biological rhythm like information processing, Brain jelly. We invent world’s smallest neural network. Multilevel switch. Fractal beating like quantum beating for nested beating to be used to create fractal cavity resonator for brain jelly.

research-protocol-in-our-lab

Why existing information theory EIT would fail to resolve the data deluge problem?

Published August 9, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Information if considered as “bits” or “Qubits” contains no information, this is a reality.

10 reasons why Existing Information Theory, EIT though applied in Classical and Quantum can never solve the data deluge problem.

(1) EIT discretizes nature, losing most of its information; user sees what it wants to see, not what the system is, then imagine a theory, try to rebuild the natural system by adjusting that imagination and glorify the equation that fits the observation.

(2) EIT rejects nature’s original information structure, consolidates a faith that everything that happens in nature is an output of a series of events happening one after another. Nature is not sequential, not a circuit, adding many parallel lines do not mimic nature’s information structure.

(3) EIT isolates the concept information and structure, as if information is a property of a structure.

(4) EIT endorses information as universal truth. Though Quantum information theory explores the phase space, sensed information is always considered as real and factual truth. Note that phase is always unseen part in an information.

(5) EIT practices intelligence as mysterious real function: match output and input by any means, out-of-blue senseless functions are endorsed as key to nature (e.g. cancer cell growth = radioactivity).

(6) EIT believes hierarchical processing means connection between logic-less mysterious functions: “deep learning” means keeping several mysterious layers between input and output, none makes sense, but better fits observation.

(7) EIT believes randomness leads to creativity: creating something new does not mean making an unpredictable choice, use of randomness fools human sense.

(8) EIT endorses imagination of every single outcome and encodes solution: Self-taught software (STS) is a mere extrapolation of outcomes; extrapolation is not prediction.

(9) EIT believes in making decision by reduction of choices:

(10) EIT believes speed and amount of resources can solve data deluge & everything: The quest for better computing is faster speed and more memory/power.

Incredible properties of AjoChhand computing: Why it would outperform all classical & quantum Turing computing

Published July 30, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

We have given a name to our geometric musical language based computing, AjoChhand computing. It uses Fractal tape instead of a Turing tape and uses Fractal Information Theory (FIT) instead of Quantum Information Theory (QIT). Why name is AjoChhand? Ajo word comes from Ajeya or Invincible, and Chhandam means Rhythm, so its an invincible rhythm computing.

Here are some of the incredible features of this class of computing.

(i) Search a massive database without searching (spontaneous reply).

(ii) Multiple nested clocks one inside another enable “a virtual instant decision making”

(iii) No programming is required as “cycles self-assemble/dis-assembly for better sync at all possible time scales simultaneously”.

(iv) “Phase space” keeps “volume intact” as required resources only increases phase density not a real space. Information = wiring geometry (hardware); Information = silence (not “bing” Philosophy); Information = Phase (geometric); Information = Perimeter or diameter (parametric).

(v) Perpetual spontaneous editing of slower time cycles (creation/destruction/defragmentation) “prepare for unknown” = higher-level learning.

(vi) We introduce “fractal resolution”, a complex signal’s lowest and fastest time scale signals are absorbed. simultaneously, & during expansion, the fractal seed delivers full output, from a seed of information (drastic shrinking of data).

(vii) The superposition of simultaneously operating million paths assembles into a sphere enables “extreme parallelism”. In quantum, only one Bloch sphere, here sphere inside a sphere inside a sphere…

(viii) Time cycle is memory, rotation along the cycle is processing, are same events, “no transport needed between memory and processing units”, no wiring, no communication, no communication channel.

(ix) No logic gate, no reduction of choices, which ensures that “speed” is irrelevant. No bits or Qubits. Object is not measured by an observer, object to be observed is not a separate thing, i.e. No measurement. Observer, Object and Environment integrates in the time cycle, (time cycle = unit of information = an event). A question is assimilated into the internal network of time cycles it affects the environment & observer in course of assimilation. That is how solution is derived, no computing is done to find an answer.

(x) All sensory information is converted to one geometric language that allows “perception”, a yellow color could have a taste. Perception is not a programming as wrongly perceived.

(xi) It never requires rebooting, only one computing runs for whole life, but of course it sleeps when it switches off certain interactive links with nature, yet even at that time all three internal rhythm networks run. Rebooting means temporary switching of the internal rhythm integrator. This is an equivalence of consciousness. The machine follows all ten criteria of a conscious machine set by us (see my consciousness post).

(xii) It always defragments internal structure, but self- editing is not so profound at the boundary clocks, there is a gaussian distribution of editing efficiency, clocks in the middle edits the maximum. There are various reasons why this is so essential. (i) Boundaries cannot be so vulnerable to changes, (ii) editing requires a high density of clock boundaries, (iii) Job description leaves only clocks in the middle to memorize environments, while faster clocks need to memorize hardware management, the slower clocks require to sync with the environment.

Arguing illogically would really make a sense: But how to make a nonsense argument?

Published June 14, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

Creating an world beyond Turing and Russel is not easy, the journey to the world of non-arguments is full of obstacles. One mistake and you return to the world of Turing. On the other hand, being non-sense is actually being random, with no rules. That takes us again nowhere. The other route is the Fractal tape or frequency fractal universe that we suggested. If Turing-Russel arguments were binary arguments, our route is “nested arguments”.

Here are 12 ways of arguing like a stupid that will make sense how universe argues and processes information at all scales:

(i) No question is born in the universe without an answer, they are born together, live together: Always a question always has its answer in it, no question could be created without an answer. Say a question is a triangle and an answer is a square then both are played in a single time cycle. If one plays a triangle, then the square is played out, and if a square is played then a triangle is automatically played. Elementary truth cycles self-assembles but never break apart. There is no true and no false. No distinct question and no distinct identity of an answer. A pair of truths make a cycle i.e. QA doublet or multiplet.

(ii) A QA doublet is not an absolute one, there is no absolute truth, every truth is decomposed into a set of new QA multiplets: thus, its a fractal network. There are only two ways the decomposition works. QA doublets have self-similar ordering (IFS) or one inside another. Thus, the analogue of an argument is QA doublet, but it is never a sum or step by step output of another set of arguments or QA doublets. Fractal decomposition of arguments is feasible but not sequentialism or parallelism.

(ii) Elementary arguments, hierarchical arguments are progeny, they are created. Both co-exist as separate identity in any set of arguments. Truths have their own plane and several planes grow spontaneously in an argument. A non-sensical argument is alive and extremely unpredictable. Unpredictability is not the sign of randomness, but a single observation of nested rhythm could originate from several alternate situations which are fundamentally different.

(iii) No answer or Question is complete, there is always a question that invalidates the answer, fixing that to evolve answer is a journey to completeness (Godel hinted, never suggested a route to explore incompleteness). Since there is no fact no true statement, the information is not just numbers. Just like in a flute a static point is generated, in the dynamic world, we get nodes and anti-nodes due to interference with a boundary. Similarly facts are static points, it is an emergent feature of our system. The static points would not conflict when we combine waves to form nested network of waves or arguments.

(iv) Logically circular or circular logic is the unit of a singular logic to enter inside and go above, always bring circular logic but follow the boundary limit of an observer. Earlier, logically circular was a matter of shame, but for us, it is a matter of pride, it is the foundation. A pair of observers noting a fact would note different things.

(v) Infinite number of planes and their arrangement makes a reality sphere or arguments: Evolution of an argument: Since question-answer couples always together, every possible solutions are connected to the question contextually. A question could have many answers in different contexts. All are mapped in a 3D nested time cycle geometry. There are two ways an argument evolves. First, increasing the length of the flute Second, editing the position or the number of holes in the flute, global change means keep the weight between the arguments same, only change the perimeter of the time cycle. Second, editing the holes means changing the geometric shape itself.

(vi) A truth is not a statement but a geometric shape, the motif of argument is to make the geometry more symmetric and integrating the geometries into one singular geometry at the highest level. Every single set of arguments form a geometric shape and a complex pattern of composition of basic geometries should form to compose a complete argument, the shape would be symmetric and follow the rules of geometries.

(vii) A logical argument cannot be stated without suggesting the angular orientation or location of an observer on the sphere, i.e. perspective of an observer sets the truth: No logical argument could stand alone, isolated, it needs a support, even though a fractal arrangement argues that at the top there should be one argument, but even that would require at least three perspectives, one from the arguments below that makes it, one from above or the argument it constructs with others, and one the perspective of an observer. A true argument does not have an idiom or universal truth, no assumption, all assumptions are environment and context dependent. There is never a truth or a false statement.

(viii) “Bing” does not contain an information but a “silence” does: Evolution of dynamic and geometric phase is everything, amplitude, mass, space all are illusion, only time is real. Time does not have any direction, time does not flow, it adjusts relative positions of “bings” on its surface thats why past present future like perceptions appear. There is only “phase” in the universe, dynamic and geometric phases. This is the philosophical foundation of nonsensical arguments.

(ix) Expansion of 12 tune Raga is the way to expand an argument. We cannot add them one after another, place simultaneously, considering all as truth like Quantum, then, we take always a circle of 12 argument cycles and then expand them, just like Indian classical Raga and our prime number theory. An argument or question answer couplet cycles perpetually making it perfect. The rule morphing comparison is the route to auto-correct an argument.

(x) Morphing with the universal geometries is a drive for the argument, there are 10 ways of making an argument in the non-argumentative world. Every natural event has a geometric arrangement of argument and the practice or game of argument is to morph with the nature’s geometrical arrangement of argument. How to form an argument in the world of nonsensical argument: 1. Negative approach (neti-neti): Start with everything as wrong and always try to negate everything that is concluded. 2. On the reality sphere change the point of an observer or change perspective of an observer and repeat the cycle. 3. The philosophy of infinite series e and Pi and Phi regulates how integral systems evolve, an argument follows this relation of linearity, more you repeat, closer to truth. 4. Breathing of Brahma, a periodic oscillation in the form of an argument construction, 5. Tear drop and ellipsoid fusion, philosophy of a pair of poles division from a single pole 6. The swastika route of arguments, outflow of arguments reverses the orientation of the spin. 7. The Om route of arguments (three imaginary worlds) 8. 1=0=1…What that is a point is nothing and everything at the same time, full and hollow are the same thing, we can enter and see eight types of times operating simultaneously (8 levels of consciousness, Yogasutra), and 12 layers one inside another. 9. The argument of Biratapurusa and Varnasram post Hiranyagarva: Viratapurusha has sensory and basic organ systems, these are lists how a structure of an argument to be framed. 10. The argument of Brahman or universal resonance: All arguments should sync each other, march towards sync of millions of arguments come from putting them inside a singular cavities and arrange them fractally.

(xi) The universal geometric relationship evolved in the number system is emergent non repeating. However, that regulates the evolution of argument and self-assembly & disassembly of QA doublets. An argument always have one less variable than the fixed truth and total number of variable and truth should compose like our number system metric, hence the network of argument could be constructed. If there is a little change in the most static argument all nested arguments would change simultaneously, this is a result of the fact that “everything is connected to everything” or “universe is a frequency fractal and consciousness is its music”.

(xii) There are 10 limits of nonsense arguments that are actually responsible for making sense: 1. One could enter inside an argument 12 times to generate 12 fundamentally different dimensions, however, if we enter more, then the relevance to the first argument becomes faint. We need to change the starting argument point regularly to sustain relevance in the nested fractal like argument practice. 2. An argument is a flute of Krishna, it nests packets of quantum oscillations in slower rhythms (beating), 3. Only 12 prime made wheels make elementary wheels of nested arguments. 4. A true argument is one that has a pair of simultaneous truths (12 triplets). 5. 10^11 truths or pattern of 12 primes (up to 37) is the limit of an argument. 6. There is a 64 matrix of teardrop to ellipsoid transition. 7. Triplet of triplet fractal forms the boundary of any information content. 8. Phase is the only variable, or relative position with respect to time. 9. Only 10 dimensions are feasible, we derive this from the number system, this striking result comes from the gravity and quantum mechanics, however, in our formulations too, more than 10 dimensions are not possible. 10.

Our world of non-sensical arguments suggests that a doublet or binary logic could be right for the 50% of the time, hence, our contribution of nonsensical argument is to complete the world of knowledge that were left out i.e. 50%, here we try to see the universe of triplets pentate to a couplet of 37 arguments putting together that makes sense.

 

Tell us if Brain is not a computer and not a Turing machine, then what?

Published May 27, 2016 by anirbanbandyo

“These words information, data, rules, software, knowledge, lexicons, representations, algorithms, programs, models, memories, images, processors, subroutines, encoders, decoders, symbols, or buffers do not exist in the brain.” Such statements flood the internet, but no one tells us, what are the words true for the brain.

Microtubule is the gateway to the understanding of the brain, thanks to its water channel inside. It is not the only component, but, just like DNA holds the key to genetics and evolution, microtubule holds the key to thermodynamics and acquired information by a living system. However, microtubule has never received the honor it should get, in spite of its magical contributions, throughout the entire living species in the planet. However, I feel that there is a bigger problem with our overall approach to biology. Our perception regarding the information is holding us back and if we do not know what is information in Nature, we know nothing. We always get an answer to a query, but, the form of the question determines the nature of answer.

I think there is always an attempt to see proteins and any biosystems like a transistor or a switch, as if from proteins to brain everything is a circuit made of elementary electronic devices. We blindly force the biological systems as if they are electronic devices found in the conventional electronic shops. Design experiments accordingly, and undoubtedly get the results satisfying our faith. This is not only a very wrong idea for the common people; you would find such an erroneous understanding even in the scientists. A Google search would get you several papers in Nature and Science suggesting that the protein is a transistor and a switch and like OP-AMP. I agree that this is an easy route to publish papers, but so many varieties of biological systems are there and without investigating what those devices want to be, we carry out simple experiments to tag them as handful of known devices used in electronic chips, it has become a religious faith now. In addition, if some scientists want to seem radical, they tag it as a quantum system, one mystery to support another mystery. Therefore the mindset masks the true quest, “bits” has not impacted “in a bit” but in a massive way to the free thinkers.

You would also see that there are two groups of peoples, one that believes that our brain is a computer, or brain is a Turing machine. In addition, there is another group, which suggests that brain is not a Turing machine, but do not tell us what is that unknown device actually the brain is or the biological system represents. Opposition to mainstream should be done sensibly. Toppling the world of “logic” that started with Bertrand Russel’s “principles of mathematics” in 1903, is not so easy or fun. Criticizing the mainstream science is good but not without an alternative in our hand that is concrete. Those who challenge the mainstream science (brain is a computer, neuron is a switch, all information processing happens through the skin of neuron body or membrane, but everything inside neuron is just a blank, neural network is a circuit etc), they are mostly not serious. If the brain is not Turing machine, then tell us what is that elementary machine? Well, in the last 100 years of development of logic, no one talked about making decisions without “logic”. Note that everyone tried to topple the logical world, but failed. Why? The inverse of “logic” is “illogical” which means “nonsense” to us for the current science. Making sense in an illogical way is the way to go. But the question is how?

Microtubule showed the way to us. With a decade long research on brain and biomaterials, we never tried to forcefully tag biomaterials and biosystems as electronic shop equipments. We felt that instead of screaming “everything is wrong”, we should carefully observe the biosystem and find what kind of systems do they make. Our papers are technical, but here is a summary of what we found.

We found that the biological systems while building living machines, does not make a switch or circuit, it wants to make a clock inside a clock inside a clock…. in a nested structure. The wiring we observe in the brain and at several biological structure is an illusion, every single biological machine is a frequency wheel, just like a clock the wheel is played as a music. Every biological system is a musical device of a very new kind. Unlike Tuning forks, they have several fundamental resonance frequencies, and they select those frequencies to play music, and those musical notes are such that they represents geometric shapes and information, so it is not harmonic, but an anharmonic device. This discovery is not “simple” as it appears. Just imagine, music representing banana and apple are being played in a device as two simple pieces of music in a loop, then if one activates an apple by synchrony or resonance, the other is played. Thus, there is no reduction of decisions like we see in the logic gates and hence “time cycle” to replace “bits” and “qubits”. There is no collapse. This is what we learnt from microtubule and applied on the entire human brain.

Thus, we reject “bits”, or “qubits”, we say that our experiment suggests, that we should not be debating whether brain is a quantum or classical or chaotic, those concerns are irrelevant, debates are unnecessary. There is something much more interesting and profound, that is the true nature of information. “Time cycles” as suggested above gets nested, we have verified this in neuron cells, at least 7 proteins.

Our discovery of nested clocks led to “Fractal tape” to replace the “Turing tape”. A very simple decision, “every single cell of a Turing tape has a Turing tape inside”, this statement alone collapses the foundation of a century old concept of Turing machine. We have repeated our experiments of resonance frequency measurement with the state of the art technology for various proteins and their complexes. For example we have studied “tubulin”, actin, beta spectrin, ancyrin, clathrin, collagen to understand the role of electromagnetic resonance frequencies. We found that they have a composition of resonance frequency bands. Mostly we found triplet of triplet bands that connects all.

Brain is a clock inside a clock inside a clock… there is no end to it. This particular finding changes the basic understanding about our brain. The old believes that neuron skin or membrane does everything falls apart. Neuron skin is just one of 300 different types of cavities that we have in the brain. Microtubule is also one of those 300 types. Therefore, cavity inside a cavity inside a cavity makes a resonance chain which is best arranged in the form of a frequency wheel is the machine that creates rhythms to operate.

In summary, we have not restricted ourselves to the microtubule alone, or single protein studies, or even to a few live neuron cells. We have built a series of technologies like atom probe noise free electrode system to see what is happening to the single cell when we see them simultaneously using various clocks. With 26000 proteins and more than a few hundreds of different types of cavities we have engaged into building a comprehensive model that disregards the existing massive brain building projects.

We cannot understand the dynamics of a river by mapping the wave shapes of ripples on its surface. One cavity, the neuron skin can take 100 billion new forms in 8 billion humans, mapping all neuron geometries would not tell what is our brain. However, we realized only way to go forward to let one cavity say neuron geometry to come under the influence of trillions of cavities below and millions of cavities above, and evolve geometry in 10^11 ways, then, information of music will let the neuron to dance, and that would be the way to understand the information processing in the brain.

We understand that developing geometric musical language, fractal cavity resonator model of the brain, doing experiment with neurons, proteins, complexes, and neuron clusters are not simple and easy task, but if we model it properly, we will be able to give the world of science a new way to look into the basic understanding of information. Only then perhaps people would understand, that our basic definition of information re-defines everything. Transition from “bit” to “time cycle” and providing every single cell of a Turing tape to hold a tape inside could transform everything we know about the operations of a biological system.