Cosmology and elementary particle physics would end by generating a new world of physics above and within: There are proposals that time does not exist and mass is everything. The history of science started with space and time and mass as a separate quantity. Always in the history of science we have seen that mass is deconstructed to a sum of smaller masses, most of the places in a mass is found to be empty and every time we lost a lots of mass. If everywhere 99% is empty and there is no apparent lower limit then, relying on mass as a fundamental parameter is silly. This is why we rejected “mass” as a fundamental parameter.
We told that the lost mass is gone to bind the particles containing the mass. Einstein’s E=mC^2 is such a formulae, and if you see our galaxy far far from the boundaries of the universe then you would find it as a single dot of mass, similarly a molecule or an atom. It is something very new only when we enter inside. This journey for mankind would continue forever. Cosmic world is not the single world out there. There is something beyond cosmology both outside and beneath the worlds of Higgs Boson. If a human is 1.7 meters and an atom is 0.16 nm, then 10^9 order spatial gap is bridged within our conscience.
Who responds? The world of “silence” and “bing”: Therefore, it is safe to consider mass is sum of spaces, as Einstein did. However, the journey should not end there. We consider a signal or a “bing” from a mass, does it come from a mass? No. Then where from? The world within, the discrete atomic energy levels emit and absorb photons, not the atomic mass. Those discrete energy levels have symmetries of their own and we often say that the energy is processed by breaking symmetry, changing one kind of ordering to another. One kind of ordering to another means change in the geometric shape. Who makes the geometric shape? Elementary particles and their ordering changes. And what does it change? The geometric phase. So the existing science tells us that the dynamic phase that we see for a particle is an illusion, it is an outburst of several elementary particles within, its own information is in the geometric phase or the silence between the bings. Two phases are essential because we need intensity of the bing to associate with the geometric phase.
bing is a boundary of silence, bing is a noise of lower hidden world.
How “time” would take the responsibility to do what mass and the space does?
The lower the mass of the exchange particle, the farther the force is felt. It means that the mass and the space are already correlated. Photon is spin 1 and Graviton is spin 2, both are massless and therefore long range forces. Mesons are heavy, hence work at a shorter distance. Instead of getting into these troubles, why not we consider that mass is a geometric transition in the time cycles. Then, space is relative difference in the time cycle perimeters. These are easy routes to
Will then the time would move forward? What is said by Quantum? Second law of thermodynamics suggests that entropy would be increasing, which means that universe has a fundamental property to get more and more disordered, why we do not know. But one thing for sure, we say that time is moving forward only because we lose information. This lose of information is like time cycles do not get connected and form an integrated network, instead they fall apart. But, why should the time cycles get disintegrated? Why is the need, unless we are trying to build another network of time cycles?
The arrow of time is a reality only when we consider that information is destroyed, this is how our thermodynamic concept of time or the arrow of time is built.
Quantum’s signature is in instantaneous control. The problem is that the scientists do not consider instantaneous effects as an absolute property. They think of negative time so that they could add a cause-effect scenario, why do we need to go to the past create cause?
What is second law of thermodynamics and entropy and the flow of time, if we consider nested time cycle as the fundamental structure of the universe? Is there any arrow of time?
When we consider nested time cycle, we enter a very different world, there is no past present future, location of an observer in the time cycle network determines what should he or she define as network geometry. Still there was no past present and future, many directions of time as proposed by Carroll in 2004 (eternal inflation).
At local time time cycles we may see that continuously the time cycles are breaking apart and somewhere in the network it is growing, there is no necessity that there would always be growth or decay or even conservation of total number of time cycles. These questions are irrelevant. Therefore, entropy of the universe if we consider time cycles is a function of time. And there is no flow of time, both the questions have all possible answer. In the conventional study destruction of information ensures flow of time, increase in entropy, but information does not have any quantity for us, we have upper and lower time limits and density of information, several other factors, but not quantity. Therefore, we are not answering the queries related to these topics.
Massless particles have time cycles propagating to infinity. Hence measuring in Quantum does not require to consider negative time. So, flow of time is not required for any reasons. We created Quantum but could not come out of the mentality of believing the science of simultaneity, where causality could never ever be essential.
The existing concept of “block universe” has to go, it is not very useful (https://www.quantamagazine.org/20160719-time-and-cosmology/): Physics laws are time-symmetric — that is, the physics they describe is the same, regardless of whether the variable called “time” increases or decreases. Moreover, they say nothing at all about the point we call “now” — a special moment (or so it appears) for us, but seemingly undefined when we talk about the universe at large. The resulting timeless cosmos is sometimes called a “block universe” — a static block of space-time in which any flow of time, or passage through it, must presumably be a mental construct or other illusion. There are even proposals for evolving Bloch universe (George Ellis) where past is fixed but the universe future is open https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1407/1407.7243.pdf Causal set Theory suggested that the universe is continuous at elementary level but discrete at large level http://www.einstein-online.info/spotlights/causal_sets?__hstc=13887208.aa7b15315168b61d73452cb836a9622f.1473287636669.1473287636669.1473287636671.2&__hssc=13887208.1.1473287636671&__hsfp=4242301618
Fay Dowker, a physicist at Imperial College London, referred to this as “accretive time.” She invited everyone to think of space-time as accreting new space-time atoms in way roughly analogous to a seabed depositing new layers of sediment over time. General relativity yields only a block, but causal sets seem to allow a “becoming,” she said. “The block universe is a static thing — a static picture of the world — whereas this process of becoming is dynamical.”
There will always be a moment of maximum density and minimum complexity (Koslowski), for us, from big bang one time cycle is running, and once the equilibrium is reached it will be a new unit and begin the journey as a new journey of primes.